A lecture on the recognition and physiology of both normal and abnormal heart sounds with numerous audio examples. Covered sounds include S1, S2, S3, S4, clicks, an opening snap and pericardial knock. The scientific evidence for the diagnostic utility of abnormal sounds is also discussed. For the most accurate reproduction of the heart sounds, I recommend listening with headphones instead of standard external computer speakers.
Fig. 15.1. (A) The 10 ECG leads of Waller. (B) Einthoven limb leads and Einthoven triangle. The Einthoven triangle is an approximate description of the lead vectors associated with the limb leads. Lead I is shown as I in the above figure, etc.