The skull has numerous holes (foramina) through which various cranial nerves, arteries, veins and other structures pass. To aid learning of these important foramina, I have created this visual mnemonic.
The Pharyngeal apparatus refers to the development and function of the clefts, arches and pouches which contribute to form the major components of the head and neck. Understanding the derivatives of the clefts, arches & pouches is initially time-consuming, however it lays a strong foundation to understand the clinical relevance thereafter.
Hopefully this visual mnemonic will allow you to memorise all the derivatives of the pharyngeal apparatus with ease.
Knowing the anatomy of the meninges and how cerebral haematomas occur is vital in an acute setting, and this visual mnemonic hopes to conceptually explain the pathophysiology behind these potentially fatal conditions.
Ptosis is the lagging of an eyelid. It has 2 distinct etiologies. Sympathetics going to the eye innervate Muller's muscle, a small muscle that elevates the eyelid. The III cranial nerve also innervates a much larger muscle that elevates the eye lid: the levator palpebrae. Thus, disruption of either will cause ptosis. The ptosis from a III nerve palsy is of greater severity than the ptosis due to a lesion of the sympathetic pathway, due to the size of the muscles innervated. As an aside, the parasympathetics run with the III cranial nerve and are usually affected with an abnormal III cranial nerve.