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AcademiesAndInstitutes

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Learn about Systolic Murmurs, Diastolic Murmurs, and Extra Heart Sounds

Watch this excellent tutorial by Khan Academy to get to grips with heart sounds.  
youtube.com
almost 4 years ago
Fd4421b361d4ac8368f0fa8de280c0abd83ca11a21883323795002918
19
663

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Ahmados Notes

Through out my 6 years studying, I made huge number of medical notes simplified from medical textbooks to one A3 paper in a well-organized manner that will let students to study easily and effortlessly ,, You can imagine this by looking at my "COPD" in the attachment. My COPD explanation video in "Ahmados Academy youtube channel" : https://youtu.be/b1Yzi-KxsFk My facebook page : https://www.facebook.com/Dr.Ahmados.Summaries  
Ahmados Academy
about 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 10deu9q?1444773933
10
1021

Problem based learning - Friend or Foe?

What is Problem Based Learning? During my time at medical school, I enjoyed (at times) a curriculum delivered through the traditional model. As the name suggests, this is an approach experienced by the majority of doctors to date. The traditional model was first implemented by the American Medical College Association and American Academy of Medicine in 1894 (Barr, 2010) and has been used by the majority of medical schools. It traditionally consists of didactic lectures in the initial years covering the basic sciences followed by clinical years, where students learn clinical medicine while attending hospital placements. Is It Better? A few years after my graduation I found myself teaching at a university which had fully adopted the use of problem based learning (PBL) in the delivery of their curriculum. PBL is a philosophy of teaching that has increasingly been used in medical education over the past 40 years. It has rapidly been replaced or supplemented in medical education as opposed to the traditional model. PBL seeks to promote a more integrated and active approach to learning right from the first year with less reliance on didactic lectures. Having been involved in these two different approaches to medical education, I was interested to explore what the evidence was for and against each. For the purposes of this blog, I have looked at four specific areas. These include student attitudes, academic achievement, the academic process of learning and clinical functioning and skills. Student Attitudes Student attitudes to PBL have been highly featured in studies and many show that there is a clear favourability towards this philosophy of teaching. Blumberg and Eckenfel (1988) found that students in a problem based preclinical curriculum rated this three times higher than those in the a traditional group in terms of what they expect to experience, what they would like, and what they actually experienced. Heale et al (1988) found physicians in the problem-solving sessions rated a Continuing Medical Education short course higher compared to others who attended traditional lectures and large-group sessions. Vernon and Black (1993) performed a Meta analysis on 12 studies that looked at attitudes and towards PBL and found PBL was favored in some way by all studies. PBL appears to be preferred by the majority of students at a range of academic levels. However, Trappler (2006) found that converting a conventional curriculum to a problem based learning model for part of a psychopathology course did not show complete favourability. Students preferred the conventional lectures given by experts, rather than PBL groups run by mentors and not experts. They did however show preference towards PBL small group sessions run by experts Academic Achievement Academic achievement is an important factor to assess. Vernon and Blake (1993) compared a number of studies and found that those, which could be compared, showed a significant trend favouring traditional teaching methods. However, it was felt this might not be reliable. When looking at the heterogeneity of the studies there was significant variation that could not be accounted for by chance alone. Interestingly, they found that there was significant geographical variation across the United States such that New Mexico showed consistently negative effects and Michigan State showed consistently positive. Other studies have shown that the traditional method may show a slightly better outcome when assessing academic achievement. Schmidt et al (1987) looked at the same progress test taken among students in six different Universities in the Netherlands and found that those taught by a traditional approach showed slightly better outcomes. Baca et al (1990) compared performances of medical students in two separate tracks, one PBL the other a traditional model. Baca et al found that PBL students scored slightly lower in the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) examinations. Dochy et al (2003) conducted a meta analysis comparing 43 studies and found that when considering the effect of PBL on the knowledge of students the combined effect size is slightly negative. The academic process of learning It is important in medical education to enable people to continue life long learning, to overcome problems and fill in knowledge gaps. Coles (1990) and Entwistle (1983) found that PBL students would place more emphasis on understanding and meaning compared to just rote learning, seen more in those taught by a traditional approach. Students on a PBL course also place more focus on using resources such as the library and online sources rather than those taught in a traditional approach (Rankin, 1992). Students taught by a traditional model place more emphasis on the resources supplied by the faculty itself. It has also been shown that students who learn through a process of problem solving, are more likely to use this spontaneously to solve new problems in the future compared with those taught in a traditional way (Bransford et al, 1989). Clinical functioning and skills Clinical competence is an important aspect in medical education and has been measured in studies comparing PBL and traditional methods. The traditional model focuses acquisition of clinical competence in the final years of a program with hospital placements. In a PBL course it may be more integrated early on. There are however, only a few studies that look at clinical competence gained in undergraduate PBL courses. Vernon and Blake (1993) compared some of these studies and found that students obtained better clinical functioning in a PBL setting compared to a traditional approach. This was statistically significant, however there was still significant heterogeneity amongst studies and for conclusive results to be made 110 studies would have to be compared, rather that the 16 samples they were able to use. They also found that in contrast to the NBME I giving better results in the traditional model, PBL students score slightly higher in NBME II and federation licensing examination which related more on clinical functioning than basic sciences. On reflection, this evidence has indicated to me that PBL is a very valuable approach and it has a number of benefits. The traditional model in which I was taught has provided a good level of academic education. However, it may not have supported me as well as a PBL course in other areas of medical education such as academic process, clinical functioning and satisfaction. On reflection and current recommendations are for a hybridisation of the PBL and traditional approach to be used (Albanese, 2010) and I would support this view in light of the evidence. References Baca, E., Mennin, S. P., Kaufman, A., and Moore-West, M. A Comparison between a Problem-Based, Community Orientated track and Traditional track Within One Medical school. In Innovation in Medical Education; An Evaluation of Its Present Status. New York: Springer publishing Barr D. (2010) Revolution or evolution? Putting the Flexner Report in context. Medical Education; 45: 17–22 Blumberg P, Eckenfels E. (1988) A comparison of student satisfaction with their preclinical environment in a traditional and a problem based curriculum. Research in Medical Education: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference, pp. 60- 65 Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Vye, N. J., & Sherwood, R. D. (1989). New Approaches to Instruction: Because Wisdom Can't Be Told. In S. Vosiadou & A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning (pp. 470 297). New York: Cambridge University Press. Coles CR. (1990) Evaluating the effects curricula have on student learning: toward a more competent theory for medical education. In: Innovation in medical education: an evaluation of its present status. New York: Springer publishing; 1990;76-93. Dochy F., Segersb M., Van den Bosscheb P., Gijbelsb D., (2003) Effects of problem-based learning: a meta-analysis. Learning and Instruction. 13:5, 533-568 Entwistle NJ, Ramsden P. Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm; 1983 Heale J, Davis D, Norman G, Woodward C, Neufeld V, Dodd P. (1988) A randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of problem-based versus didactic teaching methods in CME. Research in Medical Education.;27:72-7. Trappler B., (2006) Integrated problem-based learning in the neuroscience curriculum - the SUNY Downstate experience. BMC Medical Education 6: 47. Rankin JA. Problem-based medical education: effect on library use. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1992;80:36-43. Schmidt, H G; Dauphinee, W D; Patel, V L (1987) Comparing the effects of problem-based and conventional curricula in an international sample Journal of Medical Education. 62(4): 305-15 Vernon D. T., Blake R. L., (1993) Does Problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluated research. Academic Medicine.  
Dr Alastair Buick
over 6 years ago
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8
466

What is afterload?

Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy.  
khanacademy.org
over 3 years ago
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7
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Volume 3, Chapter 58. Fetal Circulation

Julian T. Parer, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine; Associate Staff, Cardiovascular Research Institute, San Francisco, California (Vol 3, Chap 58)  
glowm.com
over 5 years ago
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6
178

Overdiagnosis & Radiology : Special Issue in Academic Radiology

Unique blend of academic excellence and entrepreneurship, heading leading firms in India- Teleradiology Providers, pioneering company providing teleradiology services and DAMS (Delhi Academy of Medical Sciences) Premier test preparation institute in India for MD/MS/MCI preparation. He has also been an invited faculty member at various conferences, including Teleradiology in IRIA 2008 and 2011, Hospital Build Middle East, Congress of the Brain Tumor Radiology in Neuro-oncology Society. Dr. Sethi is Editor-in-Chief of Internet Journal of Radiology. He has a keen interest in Web 2.0 technologies and in maintaining his famous radiology blog, which has been featured in multiple international journals. '  
sumerdoc.blogspot.com
about 4 years ago
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5
430

Treating Pediatric Rashes

Presented by Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics Duke Clinical Research Institute.  
YouTube
over 4 years ago
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5
345

Pressure in the left heart - part 1

Watch the pressure in the left heart go up and down with every heart beat! Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy.  
khanacademy.org
over 3 years ago
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4
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Global Epidemiology of HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men | The New York Academy of Sciences

At the NYAS March 2011 Music, Science and Medicine conference, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and 2010 Blavatnik Award winner, Daniela Schiller, talks to Roger Bingham about how she got into science and reviews research in modifying fear memories.  
nyas.org
over 5 years ago
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3
40

New chief urges rethink on workload of junior doctors

Ian Ritchie, the new chairman of the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges and Faculties in Scotland, said Dr Lauren Connelly's fatal accident and…  
Evening Times
over 5 years ago
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3
40

Health and medicine

The medical world can be a confusing place. Patients and their families might feel overwhelmed by the large vocabularies and complicated explanations they get from their health care providers. Students entering health care also struggle to grasp the complexity of health sciences, and are forced to memorize huge amounts of information. We hope to make understanding the medical world a bit easier. Look around! These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video.  
Khan Academy
over 5 years ago
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3
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Welcome To The USMLE Success Academy

Welcome to the USMLE Success Academy's Official YouTube Channel. Your home for the ULTIMATE in USMLE Step 1 (Live & Online) & Step 2 (Live & Online) Preparat...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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3
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USMLE Preparation Strategy

http://www.usmlesuccess.net A detailed look at what the students of the USMLE Success Academy are doing to achieve fantastic results.  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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2
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Innovative Programme Elements Add Value to a FAIMER Regional Institute Faculty Development Fellowship Model in Southern Africa

The Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) is a US-based non-profit organisation committed to improving health professions education to improve global health. FAIMER traditionally offers a two year fellowship programme; 2 residential and 3 distance learning sessions and an education innovation project in the fellow’s home institution. The focus is on education methods, leadership/management, scholarship and the development of an international community of health professions educators. During the past 5 years, FAIMER has expanded the programme and established regional institutes in India[3], Brazil[1] and Southern Africa (SAFRI)[1]. We implemented the programme in Africa in 2008, introducing 5 innovations to the generic programme. SAFRI was created as an independent voluntary association to reflect the multinational intent of the programme. Aim of project To understand the impact of the innovations in the structure and implementation of the programme on its quality and the experience of the participants in it. Conclusions Faculty development programmes can significantly enhance their impact: Be sensitive to the local political climate Demonstrate wide ownership Focus on developing a community of practice Work within the professional time constraints of Fellows and faculty Maximise learning opportunities by linking to other scholarly activities  
Juanita Bezuidenhout
almost 10 years ago
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2
146

Cardiovascular Examination,clinical skills online

http://medicalce.com/ st Georges, University of London have hosted an excellent collection of clinical examination skills videos useful for all medical students and doctors prepairin for clinical exams like mrcp plab and usmle. i would especially recommend these videos for mrcp candidates taking their paces exam for two important reasons. 1- unlike most of other clinical examination videos which is mostly from USA institutes these videos shows the british style of clinical examinations 2- videos length are mostly 6 minutes an this exactly the time allowed in paces for examination of case that why you follow exactly the details of examination in your actual exam without the fear of running out time. 3- it has the only detailed history taking skills videos available on the web and this is immensly helpful in paces station 2.  
MRCP Videos
over 5 years ago
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2
37

Learning module: Dermatologic therapies | American Academy of Dermatology

The purpose of this module is to help medical students gain familiarity with common dermatologic treatments.  
aad.org
over 4 years ago
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2
47

Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Orthostatic hypotension is a physical finding defined by the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology as a systolic blood pressure decrease of at least 20 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing. The condition, which may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, is encountered commonly in family medicine. In healthy persons, muscle contraction increases venous return of blood to the heart through one-way valves that prevent blood from pooling in dependent parts of the body. The autonomic nervous system responds to changes in position by constricting veins and arteries and increasing heart rate and cardiac contractility. When these mechanisms are faulty or if the patient is hypovolemic, orthostatic hypotension may occur. In persons with orthostatic hypotension, gravitational opposition to venous return causes a decrease in blood pressure and threatens cerebral ischemia. Several potential causes of orthostatic hypotension include medications; non-neurogenic causes such as impaired venous return, hypovolemia, and cardiac insufficiency; and neurogenic causes such as multisystem atrophy and diabetic neuropathy. Treatment generally is aimed at the underlying cause, and a variety of pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic treatments may relieve symptoms.  
aafp.org
over 3 years ago
Www.bmj
1
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Some progress and some missed targets in the TB epidemic

There is promise of new treatments for tuberculosis (TB), although some goals set by the World Health Organization for 2015 are likely to be missed, said Jennifer Philips of New York University Langone Medical Center in remarks made at a TB day symposium on 24 March at the New York Academy of Sciences.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
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Some progress and some missed targets in the TB epidemic

There is promise of new treatments for tuberculosis (TB), although some goals set by the World Health Organization for 2015 are likely to be missed, said Jennifer Philips of New York University Langone Medical Center in remarks made at a TB day symposium on 24 March at the New York Academy of Sciences.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Preview
1
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Natural and Traditional Medicine in Cuba: Lessons For U.S. M... : Academic Medicine

The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Academy of Science has recommended that medical schools incorpor  
journals.lww.com
over 5 years ago