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Introduction to immunology | McMaster Pathophysiology Review

Microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease symptoms by a variety of mechanisms. Microbial invasion is initially countered by innate defenses that preexist in all individuals and begin to act within minutes following encounter with the infectious agent. Only when the innate defenses are bypassed, evaded or overwhelmed is an adaptive immune response required. The innate immune system (IIS) is usually sufficient to prevent the body from being routinely overpowered by these organisms. However, once they have gained a hold, they require the concerted efforts of both the IIS and the adaptive immune system (AIS). In the first part of this chapter, different arms and principles of the IIS and the AIS will be briefly discussed.  The second part of the chapter will discuss the process of fighting a bacterial and a viral infection, with an emphasis on the cross talk between the two parts of the immune system.  
pathophys.org
over 5 years ago
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Shoulder Dystocia

Topics This afternoon, I’d like to talk about an important complication of delivery, called shoulder dystocia. Shoulder Dystocia… View Text Here Delivery of the Posterior Arm Video… View Free Video Here Commercial Links: Shoulder Dystocia Vide 5-Minute Vaginal Delivery Vide 5-Minute Episiotomy Video Free Links: OBGYN-10 OBGYN-101 Gray Haired Note Shoulder Dystocia in the Global Library of Women’s Medicin Brookside Associates Medical Education Division  
Mike Hughey, MD
about 10 years ago
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Henoch Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

This is a vasculitis that most commonly occurs in children. It tends to only affect the small vessels, and typically presents with: Palpable purpura – red/purple discolorations in the skin, often on the extensor surfaces of the feet, legs, arms, or sometimes on the buttocks. The rash may initially resemble urtricaria, but later becomes palpable. GI disturbance – may include colicky abdominal pain, abdominal tenderness, melena – occurs in 50% of patients  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 bpq0mk?1444774302
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Clinical Exam Still Matters

After I retired from my academic position at the University of Miami, I started working as an intermittent ob & gyn in various cultural settings in the US and abroad. In 2006 I practiced in a hospital in New Zealand. I saw many interesting cases during my six months at Whangarei Hospital. One stands out in particular. This was a middle aged native Mauri woman who had been seeing her family doctor for several years because she was gaining too much weight, her abdomen was getting bigger, and she was constipated. Each time the family doctor saw her, he did not examine her but patted her on the back and encouraged her to eat less, eat more fruit and vegetables and be more active so that she would lose weight. When much later he finally examined her, he noticed a large tumor in her abdomen and referred her to the hospital. To make a long story short, we operated on her and removed a large ovarian cyst weighing more than 18 kilograms (about 40 pounds). This cyst fortunately turned out to be benign and the woman did well. The operation itself was something else as we needed an extra assistant to hold the tumor in her arms while we removed it without breaking it. Even though this large tumor was certainly not a record, we ended up publishing the case in a New Zealaned medical journal for family practice (see reference below), not so much for the nature of the tumor itself as for pointing out to family doctors (all doctors, in fact) that examining patients before giving them advice is most important. Alison Gale, Tommy Cobb, Robert Norelli, William LeMaire. Increasing Abdominal Girth. The Importance of Clinical Examination. New Zealand Family Physician. 2006; 33 (4): 250-252  
DR William LeMaire
about 6 years ago
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Differences in Mechanosensory Discrimination Across the Body Surface - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf

The accuracy with which tactile stimuli can be sensed varies from one region of the body to another, a phenomenon that illustrates some further principles of somatic sensation. Figure 9.4 shows the results of an experiment in which variation in tactile ability across the body surface was measured by two-point discrimination. This technique measures the minimal interstimulus distance required to perceive two simultaneously applied stimuli as distinct (the indentations of the points of a pair of calipers, for example). When applied to the skin, such stimuli of the fingertips are discretely perceived if they are only 2 mm apart. In contrast, the same stimuli applied to the forearm are not perceived as distinct until they are at least 40 mm apart! This marked regional difference in tactile ability is explained by the fact that the encapsulated mechanoreceptors that respond to the stimuli are three to four times more numerous in the fingertips than in other areas of the hand, and many times more dense than in the forearm. Equally important in this regional difference are the sizes of the neuronal receptive fields. The receptive field of a somatic sensory neuron is the region of the skin within which a tactile stimulus evokes a sensory response in the cell or its axon (Boxes A and B). Analysis of the human hand shows that the receptive fields of mechanosensory neurons are 1–2 mm in diameter on the fingertips but 5–10 mm on the palms. The receptive fields on the arm are larger still. The importance of receptive field size is easy to envision. If, for instance, the receptive fields of all cutaneous receptor neurons covered the entire digital pad, it would be impossible to discriminate two spatially separate stimuli applied to the fingertip (since all the receptive fields would be returning the same spatial information). Figure 9.4Variation in the sensitivity of tactile discrimination as a function of location on the body surface, measured here by two-point discrimination. (After Weinstein, 1969.)  
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
about 5 years ago
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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - Causes, Treatment & Therapies - Gold Canyon AZ

The Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an unceasing pain condition that often affects one of the limbs (that can be arms, legs, hands, or feet), generally after an injury or trauma to that particular limb. Complex regional pain syndrome is believed to be caused due to damage, or malfunctioning of the peripheral and central nervous systems. The central nervous system encompasses the brain and spinal cord; whereas the peripheral nervous system includes the nerve signaling from the brain and the spinal cord to the other parts of the body. The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is exemplified by prolonged or a chronic pain and mild or dramatic changes in the color of the skin, temperature or even swelling in the affecting area.  
calmareaz.com
almost 5 years ago
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Picture tests in anatomy arm and forearm 1

After completion of this video you will be able identify and discuss some features of the arm and forearm: Medial cutaneous nerve of the arm, medial cutaneou...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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Picture tests in anatomy arm and forearm 3

After completion of this video you will be able identify and discuss some features of the arm and forearm: Ulnar nerve, cutaneous innervation of the hand, te...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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Picture tests in anatomy arm and forearm 4

After completion of this video you will be able identify and discuss some features of the arm and forearm: Head and tuberosity of radius, superior radioulnar...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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Virtual arm eases phantom limb pain - BBC News

Doctors have devised a new way to treat amputees with phantom limb pain.  
BBC News
over 6 years ago
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arms-2

 
be-awesome.org
over 6 years ago
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arms-lower

 
be-awesome.org
over 6 years ago
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Common Fractures and Dislocations in Children

Fracture of the clavicle: Can occur after a fall on an outstretched arm (more likely to cause a Colles’ fracture in the old). Collar and cuff sling for 3 weeks, internal fixation only if there is non-union. Beware neurovascular injury and pneumothorax.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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A weak leg

A 50 year old right handed man presented with weakness of his right leg and arm of two months’ duration. The symptoms had come on over several days, during which he described a “dead leg” and he noticed his foot dragging while walking. On examination he had right lower limb pyramidal type distal weakness with a foot drop, power was graded at 4/5, and he had an upgoing plantar reflex. A computed tomogram of the brain showed a left parietal lesion with surrounding oedema but no midline shift, so contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken (figs 1⇓ and 2⇓). Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed raised protein with normal cell counts, normal angiotensin converting enzyme values, oligoclonal bands, IgG of 185 mg/L (normal value <40), and a negative viral polymerase chain reaction. Serum immunoglobulins and vitamin B12 values were normal; viral antibodies and antibodies for spirochetes were negative. He had no history of a neurological deficit.  
www.bmj.com
over 6 years ago
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Doctors need not give blood transfusion to mentally ill Jehovah’s Witness, judge rules

Doctors need not give a blood transfusion to a 23 year old Jehovah’s Witness detained under the Mental Health Act who slashed his arm with a razor blade and who keeps trying to reopen the wound, a High Court judge has ruled.  
bmj.com
over 6 years ago
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Elbow Flexion

http://www.kinesiologyprep.com - In this video, the motion of elbow flexion is demonstrated starting with the arm at the side of the body with the palm facin...  
YouTube
over 6 years ago
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Shoulder Flexion

http://www.kinesiologyprep.com - In this video, the motion of glenohumeral or shoulder flexion is demonstrated starting from the arm at the side of the body ...  
YouTube
over 6 years ago
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ANATOMY; MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE LOWER ARM & HANDS by Professor Fink

This is Part 3 of 5 Video Lectures on the Skeletal Muscle Groups of the Human Body by Professor Fink. In this Video Lecture, Professor Fink first describes t...  
YouTube
over 6 years ago
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Robot hand and arm gets official approval - BBC News

A robot arm capable of picking up delicate objects has been approved for use by US medical authorities.  
BBC News
over 6 years ago
Amputation injury attorney 300x286
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Amputation Injury Attorney

Our Amputation injury attorney Los Angeles will fight for victims of dismemberment of arms, legs, and fingers. Contact our personal injury Lawyers.  
downtownlalaw.com
about 6 years ago