New to Meducation?
Sign up
Already signed up? Log In

Category

Preview
3
265

Introduction to immunology | McMaster Pathophysiology Review

Microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease symptoms by a variety of mechanisms. Microbial invasion is initially countered by innate defenses that preexist in all individuals and begin to act within minutes following encounter with the infectious agent. Only when the innate defenses are bypassed, evaded or overwhelmed is an adaptive immune response required. The innate immune system (IIS) is usually sufficient to prevent the body from being routinely overpowered by these organisms. However, once they have gained a hold, they require the concerted efforts of both the IIS and the adaptive immune system (AIS). In the first part of this chapter, different arms and principles of the IIS and the AIS will be briefly discussed.  The second part of the chapter will discuss the process of fighting a bacterial and a viral infection, with an emphasis on the cross talk between the two parts of the immune system.  
pathophys.org
over 5 years ago
Preview
0
59

Robotic tentacle targets keyhole surgery - BBC News

Engineers construct a surgical arm inspired by the humble octopus, with a tube of coffee granules playing a key role in its action.  
bbc.co.uk
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
3

New Device Stimulates Nerves to Bring Feeling to Prosthetic Hands | Medgadget

Now that the mechanical aspects of prosthetic arms have gotten quite impressive, getting these devices to have a sense of touch is a major next step to ove  
medgadget.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
28

An unusual case of severe anaemia and lymphocytosis

An 83 year old man was referred to the haematology clinic with a three week history of fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. His symptoms had progressively worsened and on the day of review he felt breathless at rest. He had noted that he bruised easily over his arms and had recently been admitted for recurrent chest infections that required intravenous antibiotics. He had also lost 5 kg in weight during the past month.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
42

An unusual case of severe anaemia and lymphocytosis

An 83 year old man was referred to the haematology clinic with a three week history of fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. His symptoms had progressively worsened and on the day of review he felt breathless at rest. He had noted that he bruised easily over his arms and had recently been admitted for recurrent chest infections that required intravenous antibiotics. He had also lost 5 kg in weight during the past month.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
21

An unusual case of severe anaemia and lymphocytosis

An 83 year old man was referred to the haematology clinic with a three week history of fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. His symptoms had progressively worsened and on the day of review he felt breathless at rest. He had noted that he bruised easily over his arms and had recently been admitted for recurrent chest infections that required intravenous antibiotics. He had also lost 5 kg in weight during the past month.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
13

X-ray Art Turns Radiology Into Gorgeousness (VIDEO) |

Your chest X-rays, and those of your child's valiantly broken arm, will soon be getting the proper recognition they deserve. X-ray Art is a new project rai  
medgadget.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
7

Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, severe skin disease in which progressive ulceration develops spontaneously or after skin trauma. Unrecognised pyoderma gangrenosum may result in the destruction of an entire leg or arm or large parts of the trunk, and the condition is potentially lethal. Patients with severe disease are usually treated with immunosuppressants such as prednisolone. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical trials are scarce.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
7

Effectiveness of dressings and other devices that are used to keep a peripheral venous catheter in place | Cochrane

Most people admitted to an acute/emergency hospital ward require the insertion of a peripheral venous catheter/cannula (PVC), often known as a 'drip' or 'IV'. A PVC is a flexible, hollow, plastic tube that is inserted in a peripheral vein, most commonly in the hand, or lower arm. Up to half of all PVCs stop working before treatment has finished and a new one has to be inserted. This is uncomfortable for the patient and costly for the healthcare system. One of the reasons PVCs fail, is that the products used to hold them in place are not fully effective, and allow the PVC to move around. This movement causes redness, inflammation and even blood infections. The PVC can become blocked, or leak into the surrounding tissues, or even fall out as a consequence of the movement. The function of PVC dressings and/or securement devices is to keep the PVC in the vein, and to cover the insertion site so that it is kept dry and clean and protected from infection.  
cochrane.org
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
7

Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, severe skin disease in which progressive ulceration develops spontaneously or after skin trauma. Unrecognised pyoderma gangrenosum may result in the destruction of an entire leg or arm or large parts of the trunk, and the condition is potentially lethal. Patients with severe disease are usually treated with immunosuppressants such as prednisolone. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical trials are scarce.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
8

Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, severe skin disease in which progressive ulceration develops spontaneously or after skin trauma. Unrecognised pyoderma gangrenosum may result in the destruction of an entire leg or arm or large parts of the trunk, and the condition is potentially lethal. Patients with severe disease are usually treated with immunosuppressants such as prednisolone. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical trials are scarce.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
2

Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, severe skin disease in which progressive ulceration develops spontaneously or after skin trauma. Unrecognised pyoderma gangrenosum may result in the destruction of an entire leg or arm or large parts of the trunk, and the condition is potentially lethal. Patients with severe disease are usually treated with immunosuppressants such as prednisolone. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical trials are scarce.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
8

Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, severe skin disease in which progressive ulceration develops spontaneously or after skin trauma. Unrecognised pyoderma gangrenosum may result in the destruction of an entire leg or arm or large parts of the trunk, and the condition is potentially lethal. Patients with severe disease are usually treated with immunosuppressants such as prednisolone. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical trials are scarce.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
2

IKO Prosthetic Arm Integrates LEGOs, Turns Disability into Play |

LEGOs have the amazing ability to capture kids' imaginations and to join together fantasy and reality in fun and exciting ways. As anyone who has seen boys  
medgadget.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
5

Rayence RU-3000 Digital Radiography U-arm Now Available in U.S. |

Rayence, a Korean firm, is releasing its first U-arm X-ray system in the US, having received FDA 510(k) clearance for the device. The RU-3000 was designed  
medgadget.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
2

Powered Robotic Arm Uses Shape Memory Alloy Instead of Motors |

Powered prosthetic arms typically rely on a series of motors, pulleys, and other mechanical contraptions to make them move. These can be heavy and introduc  
medgadget.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
8

Focal neurological deficits after trauma

A 38 year old woman developed headache (without neck pain) and weakness of her left upper and lower limbs after a concussive head trauma with scalp lacerations in a motor vehicle crash. On examination (more than 4.5 hours after the trauma), she was conscious, alert, and in cardiac sinus rhythm. There was no carotid bruit. She scored 7 points on the National Institute of Health stroke scale (maximum possible score 42). Positive neurological findings included mild blunting of the left nasolabial fold; left hemiparesis, with extensor muscles being weaker (3/5) than flexors in the left upper limb (4+/5), flexors being weaker (4 to 4+/5) than extensors in the left lower limb (4+ to 5/5), and distal more than proximal weakness in the left arm and leg. She also had brisk deep tendon reflexes in the limbs on the left side; a left extensor plantar response; left hemianopia; and left hemisensory (including the face) hypoaesthesia for pain, cold, and touch. Eyelid ptosis or paresis of extraocular movements were not present, and pupillary size and light reaction were normal.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
10

Cerebral mass in HIV infection

A 34 year old woman from the Republic of Congo with known HIV infection presented with a one day history of sudden weakness of the right arm and mild headache. She had a history of cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and epilepsy. She had not travelled abroad since she had moved to the United Kingdom 10 years ago. Other than weakness in the extensor muscles of the right arm grade 4/5 on the Medical Research Council scale, the physical examination was unremarkable.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
19

A young woman presenting with severe headache

A 20 year old woman with a history of migraine with visual aura in the form of both positive (fortification spectrum) and negative features was admitted to hospital because of unilateral pulsatile right sided headache of one day’s duration. The headache was associated with photophobia, intense nausea and vomiting, right sided facial and upper arm numbness, and a right sided temporal visual field defect. She described the headache as similar to her habitual migraines in character but “the worst ever.” On examination she was normotensive and her Glasgow coma scale was 15. On neurological examination the visual field defect was confirmed and she reported reduction in light touch over the right side of her face and right upper limb.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
0
17

Rash on the arms and legs

An 11 year old girl presented to her general practitioner with painful skin lesions on her arms (fig A⇓) and legs (fig B). She had a three week history of an upper respiratory illness and had been started on amoxicillin for presumed lower respiratory tract infection. Three days after starting treatment, she re-attended with a rash on her arms and legs; her parents were worried that it was caused by a drug allergy. Apart …  
feeds.bmj.com
about 5 years ago