Notes: Here we have three middle bones again. The arm of the malleus is attached to the eardrum, and the footplate of the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea (inner ear). What they are doing is they transmit vibrations of the eardrum into the cochlea. But here we have a problem. Because the impedance of air and impedance of liquid is really different. Which one is bigger? Impedance in the liquid is much bigger than that of air.
almost 2 years ago
Background The transition period from undergraduate training to postgraduate “foundation” practice is brief – often only a matter of a few days - but its impact is profound. What was previously a well supported, structured learning environment is suddenly a strange and potentially frightening place where critical decision-making skills, authority and professionalism seem suddenly more relevant than all of the knowledge amassed in undergraduate training. Foundation doctors indicate that the undergraduate experience does little to prepare them for the shock of actual practice. Summary of work An emerging initiative within the University of Edinburgh’s College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine is to adopt the easy-to-use authoring tools and principals associated with Game Informed Learning to afford collaborative groups of later year undergraduates and foundation doctors the scope to create learning objects for undergraduates. Conclusions Using in-house developed instruments such as the branching scenario authoring tool “Labyrinth”, these groups draw on their recent experience of this transition period to create learning objects that not only directly address perceived gaps in the range of learning support activities available to undergraduates but also, using the principals of game-informed learning to situate the activities within realistic contexts, and plausible scenarios which offer an indication of what practice will feel like. Take-home message Learning tools to ease the transition between medical student and doctor.
over 7 years ago
This review compared 1) the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotics against placebo in children with an acute middle ear infection (acute otitis media (AOM)) and 2) the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotics against expectant observation (observational approaches in which prescriptions may or may not be provided) in children with AOM.
about 2 years ago
This comprehensive, richly illustrated textbook provides a systematic approach to frequent otological operations. Procedures in surgery of the ear canal, acute and chronic middle ear diseases, otosclerosis, cochlear implantation and vertigo are visualized step-by-step to acquaint the beginner with proven surgical repertoires. The book is written by two famous experts, and even the experienced surgeon will find valuable hints and suggestions to facilitate routine middle ear operations.
almost 2 years ago
Cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness | 2-Clinical-need-and-practice | Guidance and guidelines | NICE
2.1 Hearing loss may be caused by interference with the transmission of sound from the outer to the inner ear (conductive hearing loss) or damage within the cochlea, the auditory nerve or auditory centres in the brain (sensorineural hearing loss). In adults the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss is presbycusis. This is a progressive condition caused by the loss of function of hair cells in the inner ear, leading to deafness. Hearing loss in adults may also be caused by excessive exposure to noise, or by ototoxic drugs, metabolic disorders, infections or genetic factors. Severe to profound hearing loss in children may have a genetic aetiology, or have prenatal, perinatal or postnatal causes. These include conditions such as meningitis and viral infection of the inner ear (for example, rubella or measles), as well as premature birth and congenital infections. Deafness that occurs before the development of language is described as prelingual, whereas deafness that occurs after the development of language is described as postlingual.
about 3 years ago