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AutisticDisorder

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Foo20151013 2023 e2a8vo?1444774258
7
294

Monkey See, Monkey Do.

So you're sitting in a bus when you see a baby smile sunnily and gurgle at his mother. Your automatic response? You smile too. You're jogging in the park, when you see a guy trip over his shoelaces and fall while running. Your knee jerk reaction? You wince. Even though you're completely fine and unscathed yourself. Or, to give a more dramatic example; you're watching Titanic for the umpteenth time and as you witness Jack and Rose's final moments together, you automatically reach for a tissue and wipe your tears in whole hearted sympathy ( and maybe blow your nose loudly, if you're an unattractive crier like yours truly). And here the question arises- why? Why do we experience the above mentioned responses to situations that have nothing to do with us directly? As mere passive observers, what makes us respond at gut level to someone else's happiness or pain, delight or excitement, disgust or fear? In other words, where is this instinctive response to other people's feelings and actions that we call empathy coming from? Science believes it may have discovered the answer- mirror neurons. In the early 1990s, a group of scientists (I won't bore you with the details of who, when and where) were performing experiments on a bunch of macaque monkeys, using electrodes attached to their brains. Quite by accident, it was discovered that when the monkey saw a scientist holding up a peanut, it fired off the same motor neurons in its brain that would fire when the monkey held up a peanut itself. And that wasn't all. Interestingly, they also found that these motor neurons were very specific in their actions. A mirror neuron that fired when the monkey grasped a peanut would also fire only when the experimenter grasped a peanut, while a neuron that fired when the monkey put a peanut in its mouth would also fire only when the experimenter put a peanut in his own mouth. These motor neurons came to be dubbed as 'mirror neurons'. It was a small leap from monkeys to humans. And with the discovery of a similar, if not identical mirror neuron system in humans, the studies, hypotheses and theories continue to build. The strange thing is that mirror neurons seem specially designed to respond to actions with clear goals- whether these actions reach us through sight, sound, smell etc, it doesn't matter. A quick example- the same mirror neurons will fire when we hop on one leg, see someone hopping, hear someone hopping or hear or read the word 'hop'. But they will NOT respond to meaningless gestures, random or pointless sounds etc. Instead they may well be understanding the intentions behind the related action. This has led to a very important hypothesis- the 'action understanding' ability of mirror neurons. Before the discovery of mirror neurons, scientists believed our ability to understand each other, to interpret and respond to another's feeling or actions was the result of a logical thought process and deduction. However, if this 'action understanding' hypothesis is proved right, then it would mean that we respond to each other by feeling, instead of thinking. For instance, if someone smiles at you, it automatically fires up your mirror neurons for smiling. They 'understand the action' and induce the same sensation within you that is associated with smiling. You don't have to think about what the other person intends by this gesture. Your smile flows thoughtlessly and effortlessly in return. Which brings us to yet another important curve- if mirror neurons are helping us to decode facial expressions and actions, then it stands to reason that those gifted people who are better at such complex social interpretations must be having a more active mirror neuron system.(Imagine your mom's strained smile coupled with the glint in her eye after you've just thrown a temper tantrum in front of a roomful of people...it promises dire retribution my friends. Trust me.) Then does this mean that people suffering from disorders such as autism (where social interactions are difficult) have a dysfunctional or less than perfect mirror neuron system in some way? Some scientists believe it to be so. They call it the 'broken mirror hypothesis', where they claim that malfunctioning mirror neurons may be responsible for an autistic individual's inability to understand the intention behind other people's gestures or expressions. Such people may be able to correctly identify an emotion on someone's face, but they wouldn't understand it's significance. From observing other people, they don't know what it feels like to be sad, angry, surprised or scared. However, the jury is still out on this one folks. The broken mirror hypothesis has been questioned by others who are still skeptical about the very existence of these wonder neurons, or just how it is that these neurons alone suffered such a developmental hit when the rest of the autistic brain is working just dandy? Other scientists argue that while mirror neurons may help your brain to understand a concept, they may not necessarily ENCODE that concept. For instance, babies understand the meaning behind many actions without having the motor ability to perform them. If this is true, then an autistic person's mirror neurons are perfectly fine...they were just never responsible for his lack of empathy in the first place. Slightly confused? Curious to find out more about these wunderkinds of the human brain? Join the club. Whether you're an passionate believer in these little fellas with their seemingly magical properties or still skeptical, let me add to your growing interest with one parting shot- since imitation appears to be the primary function of mirror neurons, they might well be partly responsible for our cultural evolution! How, you ask? Well, since culture is passed down from one generation to another through sharing, observation followed by imitation, these neurons are at the forefront of our lifelong learning from those around us. Research has found that mirror neurons kick in at birth, with infants just a few minutes old sticking their tongues out at adults doing the same thing. So do these mirror neurons embody our humanity? Are they responsible for our ability to put ourselves in another person's shoes, to empathize and communicate our fellow human beings? That has yet to be determined. But after decades of research, one thing is for sure-these strange cells haven't yet ceased to amaze and we definitely haven't seen the last of them. To quote Alice in Wonderland, the tale keeps getting "curiouser and curiouser"!  
Huda Qadir
over 5 years ago
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5
196

List of Autism Medication for Children

List of drugs and autism medication which are commonly used to treat certain symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.  
child-autism-parent-cafe.com
over 4 years ago
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5
55

Autism breakthrough: Animation program helps children

Everyone involved in treating children with autism, from the professionals to the parents to the children with autism themselves, can tell you how frustrating the treatment can be.  
washingtontimes.com
over 4 years ago
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4
117

Autism Screening Tutorial

Tutorial on evaluating for signs of autism in toddlers, produced by Help Autism Now Society.  
OSCE Videos
almost 6 years ago
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4
54

Kanner’s infantile autism and Asperger’s syndrome -- Pearce 76 (2): 205 -- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

Recent much publicised attention to autism and its putative relation to the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination reminds us that autism affects approximately 4 in 10 000 of the population. It is characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, restricted and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities, and the presence of developmental abnormalities by 3 years of age. Much of the psychiatric literature appears to overlook the organic basis,1 with subtle neurological signs evident in many examples: learning difficulties, a high incidence of epilepsy, viral infections, tuberous sclerosis, and fragile X syndrome are known associations.  
jnnp.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
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4
106

What Happened When They Treated Autistic Children With Medical Cannabis

For some bizarre reason, there is not a state in the US that recognizes Autism as a qualifying condition to use cannabis medically, except in the case of California where doctors can prescribe cannabis to anyone they feel will benefit medicinally. That’s not to say that activists in some states aren’t fighting and working hard to […]  
collective-evolution.com
over 4 years ago
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4
76

'Digital Puppeteer': making learning fun for children with autism - Autism Daily Newscast

Carson City, Nev. — In what can be called a breakthrough in teaching children with autism, live animator expert Gary Jesch came up with something that will catch the attention of both typically developing children as well as children on the spectrum— a ‘digital puppeteer’.  
autismdailynewscast.com
about 4 years ago
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2
85

Admiring Autism: Busting 'autism myths' with a camera - BBC News

Photographer Sara Dunn is "challenging the myths surrounding autism" with a camera, her own son and other affected families.  
BBC News
over 5 years ago
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2
35

Brain imaging reveals autism in boys

Researchers at Linköping University and the University of Gothenburg have developed a new brain imaging measure to identify autism in boys. The method opens up new possibilities to track progress and improve treatment.  
liu.se
over 3 years ago
12
1
31

WHO | World Health Assembly progress on noncommunicable diseases and traditional medicine

The 67th Health Assembly approved plans to better incorporate palliative care, expand inclusion of the needs of those affected by autism, improve access to health care for those with disabilities, better integrate the use of traditional medicine and raise awareness of psoriasis.  
who.int
over 5 years ago
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1
23

Discovering age-specific brain changes in autism

The field of autism research has tried to find a central theory underlying brain changes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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1
15

Sniffing could provide autism test - BBC News

The way children sniff different aromas could form the basis of a test for autism, suggest researchers in Israel.  
bbc.co.uk
over 4 years ago
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1
6

Doctors claim breakthrough in treating autism - Times of India

When he was only two, Avaneesh Shetty’s parents noticed he was not very communicative, had poor concentration and was hyperactive.  
timesofindia.indiatimes.com
over 4 years ago
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1
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Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate & environment, computers, engineering, health & medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more -- from the world's leading universities and research organizations.  
sciencedaily.com
over 4 years ago
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1
12

Merritt's Neurology

The thoroughly updated Twelfth Edition of this classic retains the organization, practicality, and readability that makes Merritt's Neurology one of the most popular texts among neurologists, primary care physicians, and residents reviewing for psychiatry or neurology boards. In 183 short chapters, the book provides the essentials clinicians need on symptoms/signs, diagnostic tests, and neurologic disorders of all etiologies. For this edition, Timothy A. Pedley, MD, Chair of the Department of Neurology at Columbia University, joins Dr. Rowland as co-editor. Coverage includes separate chapters on autism, autosomal recessive ataxias, and autosomal dominant ataxias, and new chapters on endovascular neuroradiology, parkinsonian syndromes, Lewy body dementias, frontotemporal dementia, vanishing white matter, vasculitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, neuromyelitis optica, Kennedy disease, spinal muscular atrophy, complex regional pain syndrome, disorders of DNA translation, the immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and Hashimoto encephalopathy. Most chapters have been updated to reflect advances in molecular genetics. A companion Website will offer the fully searchable text and an image bank.  
books.google.co.uk
over 4 years ago
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1
10

Using Google Glass to Enhance Brain Power in Autism

This is amazing interview with Arshya Vahabzadeh, a pediatric psychiatrist who is working with Brain Power, a company that is developing transformable, weara...  
youtube.com
about 4 years ago
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1
1

Autism in under 19s: recognition, referral and diagnosis | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

This guideline will shortly be checked to see if it needs updating, please register as a stakeholder to be informed about the decision.  
nice.org.uk
about 4 years ago
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1
1

Autism in adults: diagnosis and management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

This guideline will shortly be checked to see if it needs updating, please register as a stakeholder to be informed about the decision.  
nice.org.uk
about 4 years ago
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1
0

Autism in under 19s: support and management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

This guideline will shortly be checked to see if it needs updating, please register as a stakeholder to be informed about the decision.  
nice.org.uk
about 4 years ago
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1
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Eugen Bleuler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paul Eugen Bleuler (German: [ˈɔɪɡeːn ˈblɔɪlər]; April 30, 1857 – July 15, 1939)[1] was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist[2] most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness and for coining the terms "schizophrenia",[3][4] "schizoid",[5] "autism",[6] and what Sigmund Freud called "Bleuler's happily chosen term ambivalence".[7]  
en.wikipedia.org
almost 4 years ago