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Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections during pregnancy | Cochrane

Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women generally, and particularly in pregnant women. A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary tract (bladder, kidneys) due to the presence of bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria). During pregnancy, UTI may be a serious complication that is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Therefore, it is important to define the optimal intervention for preventing RUTI during pregnancy to improve pregnancy outcomes. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in pregnant women can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far, little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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100

Diagnostic Pathology: Infectious Diseases

Diagnostic Pathology: Infectious Diseases takes a comprehensive look at infectious diseases, their anatomic manifestations, and how to ensure a complete and accurate sign out at the microscope. A user-friendly chapter landscape and thousands of high-quality images combine to make this medical reference book a key companion for the general surgical pathologist or resident in training. Comprehensive discussions on how to sign out cases. Formatted into sections by organism type (Virus, Bacteria, Fungi, and Parasite), and further divided by those that can be diagnosed on histological appearance. Species-specific pathologies for finding "zebra" cases.Essential information is listed in a bulleted format with numerous high-quality images to facilitate learning."Key Facts" highlight the quick criteria needed for diagnosis or adequacy evaluation at the time of a procedure.Features clear pictures of diagnostic forms, ancillary diagnostic tools, including microbiology and molecular diagnostics, pathological reaction patterns expected for given organisms, and important common and uncommon pathogens.Explains when and when not to use molecular diagnostics, and discusses histological limitations and how to address them at sign out.  
books.google.co.uk
over 5 years ago
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Antibiotics for preventing recurrent sore throat | Cochrane

Recurrent sore throat is an inflammation of the throat occurring three or more times per year. Sore throat has many causes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi (uncommonly) and non-infective causes. It causes throat pain, redness, swelling, swollen lymph nodes and symptoms of other accompanying respiratory infections. Antibiotics are sometimes used to prevent recurrent sore throat on the basis that sore throats can be caused by bacteria. However, frequent use of antibiotics has been linked to the development of antibiotic resistance. We looked for studies (randomised controlled trials) that investigated the effectiveness of antibiotics for preventing recurrent sore throat in adults and children.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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Needle size for vaccination procedures in children and adolescents | Cochrane

Vaccines contain antigens that make our immune system produce antibodies that can protect against disease. Antigens are modified or partial forms of the virus, bacteria, or the toxin that cause the disease that the vaccine protects against. Because the antigen is altered from its original form it cannot cause disease, but it can produce an immune response.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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Antibiotic prophylaxis during the second and third trimester in pregnancy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes and morbidity | Cochrane

Antibiotics are administered to pregnant women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (before labour) to prevent bacteria in the vagina and cervix affecting the pregnancy. Infection by some infectious organisms in a woman’s genital tract can cause health problems for the mother and her baby, and has been associated with preterm births. This review of eight randomised trials involved approximately 4300 women in their second or third trimester. We found that antibiotics did not reduce the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (one trial, low quality of evidence), or the risk of preterm birth (six trials, high quality of evidence). Preterm delivery was reduced in pregnant women who had a previous preterm birth and an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) during the current pregnancy. There was no reduction in preterm delivery in pregnant women with previous preterm birth without a bacterial imbalance during the current pregnancy (two trials). Postpartum endometritis, or infection of the uterus following birth, was reduced overall (three trials, moderate quality of evidence), as well as in a trial of high-risk women who had a previous preterm birth (one trial, moderate quality of evidence). No reduction in neonatal illness was observed. Outcomes of interest were available in trials with high losses to follow-up. We could not estimate the side effects of antibiotics since side effects were rare; however, antibiotics may still have serious side effects on women and their babies.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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Severe combined immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents a group of rare, sometimes fatal, congenital disorders characterized by little or no immune response. The defining feature of SCID, commonly known as "bubble boy" disease, is a defect in the specialized white blood cells (B- and T-lymphocytes) that defend us from infection by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Without a functional immune system, SCID patients are susceptible to recurrent infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and chicken pox, and can die before the first year of life. Though invasive, new treatments such as bone marrow and stem-cell transplantation save as many as 80% of SCID patients.  
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
over 5 years ago
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Acid-reducing medications sharply raise risk of C. diff. bacteria infection in kids

Researchers caution against overuse of these drugs in pediatric patientsInfants and children who are given prescription acid-reducing medications face a substantially...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 5 years ago
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Vaccines for preventing severe salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease | Cochrane

Salmonella organisms are probably second only to pneumococcus among bacterial causes of infection in people with sickle cell disease. Infection with these bacteria can lead to complications and reduce the quality of life of people with the disease and sometimes result in death. Immunization with salmonella vaccines is one of the interventions available to reduce infection by these bacteria. There are different types of vaccines available: the inactivated vaccines and the oral vaccines. We did not find any randomized controlled trials assessing these vaccines in people with sickle cell diseases. We therefore conclude that there is a need for a randomized controlled trial to assess the benefits and risks of the different types of vaccines to evaluate the potential for improving survival and decreasing mortality from salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
89d3670b52fd41cb9ef93065e272c0253b444e45848740847958096
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30024

Bacteriology Map: Cocci, Bacili and Spiral

An incredible diagram on bacteriology. Remember a lot of hard details quickly and easily!  
mohammed
over 5 years ago
Cochrane logo 400
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Antibiotics to prevent infection of the brain coverings (meningitis) in patients with basilar skull fracture | Cochrane

Basilar skull fracture (7% to 15.8% of all skull fractures) places the central nervous system in contact with bacteria from the nose and throat and may be associated with cerebrospinal fluid leakage (occurring in 2% to 20.8% of patients). Blood or watery discharge from the nose or ears, bruising behind the ear or around the eyes, hearing loss, inability to perceive odours or facial asymmetry may lead physicians to the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture. Patients with a basilar skull fracture may develop meningitis and some doctors give antibiotics in an attempt to reduce this risk.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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Antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria | Cochrane

Growth of bacteria in the urine without any complaints (asymptomatic bacteriuria) is commonly detected in women up to 60 years, people with diabetes and in the elderly. It is not clear whether antibiotic treatment for this condition is of benefit for non-pregnant adults.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
Sinaiem dark
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endocarditis-pearls

– Janeway lesions – painless, red macule/patch, palms/soles, culture bacteria from the lesion, embolic manifestation of endocarditis  
sinaiem.org
over 5 years ago