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In memoriam: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

Yale psychologist Susan Nolen-Hoeksema died Jan. 2. in Yale-New Haven Hospital, following heart surgery associated with a blood infection. She was 53 years old.  
news.yale.edu
almost 4 years ago
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Williams syndrome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Williams syndrome (WS), also known as Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS), is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by: a distinctive, "elfin" facial appearance, along with a low nasal bridge; an unusually cheerful demeanor and ease with strangers; developmental delay coupled with strong language skills; profound visuo-spatial impairments; and cardiovascular problems, such as supravalvular aortic stenosis and transient high blood calcium.  
en.wikipedia.org
almost 4 years ago
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Diagnosis and Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults - American Family Physician

Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are admitted to the intensive care unit should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic, plus azithromycin or a respiratory fluoroquinolone. Those with risk factors for Pseudomonas should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic (piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem, doripenem, or cefepime), plus an aminoglycoside and azithromycin or an antipseudomonal fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin). Those with risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus should be given vancomycin or linezolid. Hospitalized patients may be switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics after they have clinical improvement and are able to tolerate oral medications, typically in the first three days. Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Physicians should promote pneumococcal and influenza vaccination as a means to prevent community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteremia.  
aafp.org
over 3 years ago
8490c0338bde8478f2baa8c9160fdded56c7c53106930143110740972
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CHADS2VAS

Quick evaluation regarding need for blood thinners  
Daniel Kissane
over 3 years ago
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Stethoscope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body. It typically has a small disc-shaped resonator that is placed against the chest, and two tubes connected to earpieces. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes" are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its internal parts. Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope.  
en.wikipedia.org
over 3 years ago
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Maternal Serum Screening (MSS)

This video explains which conditions this blood test can screen for and the benefits and drawbacks of the screening.  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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Priapism and Hematuria

<p>Why is a 12 hour erection a bad thing? How should we manage the patient with bloody urine? A curbside consult with urologist Brian Shaffer, MD.&nbsp;</p <p>Your emails</p <p>An unusual southern accent</p <p>and much more...</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><em><strong><span style="font-size: x-large; color: #0000ff;">Urology Primer</span></strong></em></p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Priapism<span style="font-size: 10px; font-weight: normal;">&nbsp;a rare condition that causes a persistent, and often painful, penile erection.</span></span></strong></p <p>&nbsp;</p <p>Priapism is drug induced, injury related, or caused by disease, not sexual desire. As in a normal erection, the penis fills with blood and becomes erect. However, unlike a normal erection that dissipates after sexual activity ends, the persistent erection caused by priapism is maintained because the blood in the penile shaft does not drain. The shaft remains hard, while the tip of the penis is soft. If it is not relieved promptly, priapism can lead to permanent scarring of the penis and inability to have a normal erection.</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Clot retention</span></strong></p <p>blood clots in the bladder prevent urine emptying</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><span style="font-size: large;"><strong>Coude Catheter</strong></span></p <p>a semi-rigid catheter that has a curve or bend at the tip. The curved tip allows it to navigate over the curvature of the prostate or any other urethral obstruction it may encounter. A Coude catheter is specifically designed for this purpose. Coude catheters are available in size 8 French to size 26 French.</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">De Novo</span></strong></p <p>The Latin expression de novo literally means something akin to "from the beginning" or "anew"</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Interstitial cystitis</span></strong></p <p>also called painful bladder syndrome &mdash; is a chronic condition characterized by a combination of uncomfortable bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pain in your pelvis, which can range from mild burning or discomfort to severe pain.</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Cystoscopy</span></strong></p <p>the use of a scope (cystoscope) to examine the bladder. This is done either to look at the bladder for abnormalities or to help with surgery being performed on the inside of the urinary tract (transurethral surgery).</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">CT Urogram</span></strong></p <p>A urogram is a radiograph, or X-ray image, of the urinary tract.&nbsp;</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">TURP</span></strong></p <p>transurethral resection of the prostate</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Foley catheter</span></strong></p <p>a thin, sterile tube inserted into the bladder to drain urine. Because it can be left in place in the bladder for a period of time, it is also called an indwelling catheter. It is held in place with a balloon at the end, which is filled with sterile water to hold it in place. The urine drains into a bag and can then be taken from an outlet device to be drained</p <p>&nbsp;</p <p>&nbsp;</p>  
Rob Orman, MD
over 9 years ago
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Shotgun Histology Blood Smear

Shotgun Histology Blood Smear  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 6 years ago
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arterial-blood-gas

Do ABGs confuse you? Here is a presentation of 3 simple steps with a colour-coding system to deconfuddle you. Or perhaps you're already good at them? There are 13 examples that you will be walked-through. Press pause and play to test yourself against the tutor's interpretation.  
boxmedicine.com
over 5 years ago
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SLE - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease, similar to systemic sclerosis, RA, and mixed connective tissue disease. Often, symptoms of these diseases overlap. In cases where you unable to distinguish exactly which condition is present,we would normally say that mixed connective tissue disease is present.   Like those other disorders, ANA’s (anti-nuclear antibodies) can be found in blood of many affected patients.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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What actually causes mountain sickness?

I don't really understand what causes mountain sickness. I thought it was due to low oxygen levels, but then I read somewhere it is due low carbon dioxide levels in the blood causing alkalosis. What is it that actually happens to make people so sick at altitude?  
Raiha Mastorn
about 7 years ago
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Why do we use compression bandages on patients with leg ulcers?

I know that compression bandages are used in patients with venous leg ulceration, but would this not increase the risk of reducing blood supply and therefore the risk of further ulceration?  
Sally Ralton
about 7 years ago
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What is the role of kidneys in long term control of blood flow?

What is the role of kidneys in long term control of blood flow?  
komal zafar
about 7 years ago
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What is the effect of pressure on vascular resistance and tissue blood flow?

Does increased arterial pressure increase or decrease vascular resistance? What is critical closing pressure?  
komal zafar
about 7 years ago
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Could these results indicate hepatitis?

Could these results indicate hepatitis? White cell count - 22 x 109/L (4-11) C-reactive protein (CRP)- 256 mg/L (<10) Serum alkaline phosphatase - 178U/L (45-105) Serum gamma glutamyl tranferase - 437 U/L (<50) Serum aspartate aminotransferase - 297 U/L (1-31) Serum total bilirubin - 10 µmol/L (1-22) Serum amylase - 2018 U/L (60-180) Serum urea - 6.7 mmol/L (2.5-7.5) Serum creatinine - 98 µmol/l (60-110) Raised white cell count and CRP indicate inflammation and liver-function tests are abnormal (except bilirubin). Would abnormal ALP, AST & GGT indicate hepatitis or does a normal bilirubin indicate normal breakdown of red cells & therefore normal liver function? Though my real problem here is I know that these are liver function tests, but not WHY they are liver function tests (and therefore how else abnormal results could occur...) Cheers.  
b d
about 7 years ago
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What is the concept?

Concept to my understanding means an idea which is essential or core to understanding the topic or subject. For example Blood Pressure, optmal, low or high means what? To understand blood pressure and how volume, pressure and flow dynamics affects it; I need to know the role of vessel diameter, volume and density of blood plus distance for the blood to travel. Would someone be able to comment that I understand and apply the word concept correctly? or be able to better explain what concept means?  
Sheilla Pinjani
about 7 years ago
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What are the Endocrine effects of thyroidectomy?

After a total surgical thyroidectomy for small cancerous tumour and radioactive labelling/scan to ensure no tissue remains, what effect does loss of the (healthy) parathyoids have on the patient's calcium control? Do they become more likely to develop osteoporosis? Are blood Ca levels monitored?  
voirrey hampson
almost 7 years ago
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If Wilson's disease is due to too much copper, why are serum copper levels low?

If Wilson's disease is due to too much copper, why are serum copper levels low? I've never got this. Thanks.  
Lisa Caldrick
almost 7 years ago
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Can we detect blood group by help of saliva ?

Hey everyone. The other day I was asked in my physiology class if it is possible to detect blood group of an individual through saliva? If so, then how? Please help!  
komal zafar
almost 7 years ago