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23

Lactic Acidosis with Hypokalaemia

Why exactly does this occur. I understand salbutamol increases K+ entry into cells, which therefore increases H+ entry into the blood (K+/H+ exchange) but I thought this would be a metabolic acidosis - why then does lactate build up?  
Ricky Rimmer
over 6 years ago
11
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1213

Hypovolemic shock after blood donation?

Is it possible for a healthy adult who donates 500 mL blood to get into the (compensated) shock with pale, cool and sweaty skin? I mean, does anyone know if this has actually happened to someone? Also, is it any quick and reliable test to differ between hypovolemic shock and vasovangal syncope? Symptoms of both seem to be similar  
Jan Modric
about 6 years ago
7
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55

How to interpret Arterial blood gas

How do you interpret arterial blood gas results  
Alex
about 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1fhdw5v?1444774091
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92

The Arterial Highway

Metaphors and analogies have long been used to turn complex medical concepts into everyday ones, albeit with fancy terminology. Having been involved with many 3D animations on the topics of Blood Pressure, arteriosclerosis, cholesterol and the like, we find that often a metaphor goes a long way to building understanding, credibility and even compliance with patients. One of my favorite analogies is what we call the arterial highway. Much like their tarmacked counterparts, arteries act as conduits for all the parts that make your body go. A city typically uses highways, gas lines, water pipes, railways and other infrastructure to distribute important materials to its people. Your body is much the same, except that it does it all in one system, the cardiovascular system. This is used to deliver nutrients, extract waste, transport and deliver oxygen and even to maintain the temperature! The arteries can do all these things because of their smart three-layered structure. Our arteries consist of a muscular tube lined by smooth tissue. They have three layers named – the Adventitia, Media and Intima. Each is designed with a specific function and through the magic of evolution has developed to perform its function perfectly. The first is the Tunica Adventitia, or just adventitia. It is a strong outer covering over the arteries and veins. It has special tissues that are fibrous. The fibers let the arteries flex, expanding and contracting to accommodate changes in blood pressure as the blood flows past it. Unlike a steel pipe, arteries pulsate and so must be at once be flexible, and strong. Tunica Media - the middle layer of the walls of arteries and veins is made up of a smooth muscle with some elasticity built in. This layer expands and contracts in a rhythmic fashion, much like a Wave at a baseball game, as blood moves along it. The media layer is thicker in arteries than in veins, and importantly so, as arteries carry blood at a higher pressure than veins. The innermost layer of arteries and veins is the Tunica Intima. In arteries, this layer is composed of an elastic lining and smooth endothelium - a thin sheet of cells that form a type of skin over the surface. The elastic tissue present in the artery can stretch and return, allowing the arteries to adapt to changes in flow and blood pressure. The intima is also a very smoothe, slick layer so that blood can easily flow past it. Every layer of the artery has developed evolutionary traits that help your arterial system to maintain flexibility, strength and promote blood flow. Diseases and conditions like high cholesterol or high blood pressure, diabetes and others prevent the arteries from doing their function well by creating blockages or increasing the stress on one or more of the layers. For example, high blood pressure causes rips in the smooth lining of the Intima. Anybody who has experienced a pipe burst in a house knows that the damage can be extreme and can never fully be restored. Understanding the delicate functions of the arterial structure gives good incentive to treat them better. Conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol and lifestyle diseases such as diabetes create tears, holes, blockages, and can disrupt the functions of one or more layers. Getting patients to visualize the effect of bad eating habits on their anatomy helps to increase patient compliance. In modern society, the concept of highways goes hand in hand with the concept of traffic jams. Patients understand that the arterial highway is one that can never be jammed.  
Mr. Rohit Singh
over 6 years ago
Www.bmj
0
16

Endovascular therapy reduces disability from stroke, studies confirm

Endovascular therapy using minimally invasive procedures to remove blood clots from occluded brain vessels within the first few hours of ischaemic stroke significantly reduces disability when compared with medical therapy, two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine have shown.1 2  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
16

Testing for changes in troponin over first hour speeds up detection of acute myocardial infarction

Testing blood for high sensitivity cardiac troponin T when patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) arrive at hospital and monitoring any changes over the first hour can accurately detect who has had a heart attack and who has not, a multicentre European study has found, which could accelerate decisions on management.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
2

Cough and weight loss in a young man

A 28 year old man was referred to the emergency department by his general practitioner after presenting with a two day history of haemoptysis. He described coughing up a teaspoon of fresh blood in the morning after a month of coughing up rusty coloured sputum. This was on a background of eight months of persistent cough associated with progressive lethargy and weight loss, with isolated episodes of night sweats. His travel history showed no exposure to high risk areas for tuberculosis or HIV, and he denied any high risk behaviours for contracting HIV. He had never smoked.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
15

Airway obstruction after the development of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

A 67 year old white woman presented to her family doctor in January 2013 with a small asymptomatic thyroid swelling. Her serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration was high (37 mIU/L; reference range 0.5-4.5) and serum free thyroxine was low (5.4 pmol/L; 10-21), consistent with a hypothyroid state. However, she had no clinical features of hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed diffuse hypoechoic enlargement of the thyroid gland, with no retrosternal extension. Her serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) value was also high (>600 kU/L; <35 kU/L). These features were suggestive of autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis. She was advised to take thyroxine tablets (100 µg) daily, and after two months her neck swelling reduced in size and her serum TSH concentration normalised (1.2 mU/L).  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
5

More blood for India

“By donating a unit of blood a year a person can get more blessings than by going to a place of worship,” said Harsh Vardhan, then union health minister, launching “national voluntary blood donation fortnight” on 1 October. With this date already established as “national voluntary blood donation day,” Vardhan urged people to also turn their birthdays into opportunities for donating blood.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Preview
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7

UK government apologises for contaminated blood scandal

An inquiry into why thousands of people in Scotland contracted hepatitis C and HIV in the 1970s and ’80s from NHS blood and blood products has concluded that there were “few aspects in which matters could, or should, have been handled differently.”1  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Www.bmj
0
26

Endovascular therapy reduces disability from stroke, studies confirm

Endovascular therapy using minimally invasive procedures to remove blood clots from occluded brain vessels within the first few hours of ischaemic stroke significantly reduces disability when compared with medical therapy, two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine have shown.1 2  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
Preview
0
4

Upper Limb Arteries - Hand and Wrist - 3D Anatomy Tutorial - YouTube

Blood supply to the hand and wrist upper limb arteries anatomy tutorial. More tutorials available on http://AnatomyZone.com. The following structures are rev...  
youtube.com
almost 5 years ago
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14

Spinal Cord Anatomy - Blood Supply - 3D Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the blood supply to the spinal cord using the BioDigital Human (http://www.biodigitalhuman.com). This tutor...  
youtube.com
almost 5 years ago
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0
3

Patients prescribed proton pump inhibitors in combination with diuretics face increased risk of hospitalization for low blood magnesium

Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is associated with hospitalization for hypomagnesemia, particularly among patients also receiving diuretics, according to research published this week in...  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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25

Food allergies can be transmitted from blood products to children in rare cases

In rare cases, children can develop anaphylactic allergies to previously tolerated foods after receiving blood products via transfusion, report the authors of a case study published in...  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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0
3

Early detection of osteoarthritis via blood test in sight, says study

There is currently no blood test for early-stage osteoarthritis. Now, a new study shows it is possible to detect a biomarker of the disease in the blood before bone damage occurs.  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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19

Minimally invasive spinal fusion: Less pain, faster recovery, smaller scar

A minimally invasive spinal fusion back surgery results in less blood loss, less postoperative pain, smaller incisions, a shorter hospital stay and faster recovery and return to work.  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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19

Providing universal donor plasma to massively bleeding trauma patients is feasible and can save lives

A recent randomized trial that looked at the feasibility of 2013 guidelines issued by the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Project for trauma resuscitation found that...  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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3

First systematic review of the scientific literature on men who have sex with men (MSM) and blood donation

The scientific journal PLOS ONE recently published a scientific article by the Belgian Red Cross analyzing whether men who have sex with other men and donate blood pose a risk in terms...  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago
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0
1

DNA blood test detects lung cancer mutations

Circulating tumor DNA in blood a valid option for EGFR testing in patients who do not have accessible tumor tissue, study showsCancer DNA circulating in the bloodstream...  
medicalnewstoday.com
almost 5 years ago