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Blood supply gi1 393x400
6
374

Blood supply of the GI tract

Blood Supply of Gi tract  
sketchymedicine.com
over 4 years ago
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5
546

MDS made easy - Myelodysplastic syndromes and Roald Dahl

The myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by low blood counts (cytopenias) and abnormally looking blood cells (dysplasia). It is an important cause of bone marrow failure and can lead to acute myeloid leukemia. This video uses the story of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl as the starting point to explain this condition and make it easier to understand.  
Vernon Louw
over 6 years ago
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5
197

Platelet clumping - Full Blood Count Masterclass series

Platelet clumping is an important cause of a falsely decreased platelet count and occurs in about one out of ten patients with a low platelet count or thrombocytopenia. what it is, what causes it and what the implications are for the patient. Every medical student and doctor should know and recognize this. Enjoy!  
Vernon Louw
over 6 years ago
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5
107

Blood Gases (O2, CO2 and ABG)

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twit...  
YouTube
over 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 zwf33b?1444774244
5
92

"So are you enjoying it?"

"When did the pain start Mr Smith?" "Ah so do you enjoy it?" 'It' of course refers to your five year medical degree. Patients can be nice can't they. Often it seems that all patients want to talk about is you. I thought the public didn't like students, aren't students lazy drunks who wake up at midday, squander their government hand-outs on designer clothes, and whose prevailing role in society was to keep the nation's budget baked bean industry in the black? Apparently the same isn't thought of medical students, well maybe it is, but god patients are polite. The thing is I have found these questions difficult; it is surprising how they can catch you off guard. Asking if I am enjoying 'it' after I have woken up at dawn, sat on a bus for 40 minutes, and hunted down a clinician who had no idea I was meant to be there, could lead on to a very awkward consultation. But of course it doesn't "yes it is really good thank you". "Do you take any medications, either from your GP or over the counter?" "Are you training to be a GP then?" Medicine is a fascinating topic and indeed career, which surely human nature makes us all interested in. As individuals lucky enough to be studying it, maybe we forget how intriguing the medical profession is? This paired with patients sat in a small formal environment with someone they don’t know could bring out the polite ‘Michael Parkinson’ in anybody. Isn't this just good manners, taking an interest. Well yes. Just because I can be faintly aloof doesn't mean the rest of the world has to me. But perhaps there is a little more to it, we ask difficult personal questions, sometimes without even knowing it, we all know when taking a sexual history to expect the consultation to be awkward or embarrassing, but people can be apprehensive talking about anything, be it their cardiovascular disease, medications, even their date of birth. We often then go on to an examination: inspecting from the end of the bed, exposing a patient, palpating. Given a bit context you can see why a patient may want to shift the attention back to someone like us for a bit, and come on, the medical student is fair game, the best target, asking the consultant whether they enjoys their job, rather you than me. If we can oblige, and make a patient feel a bit more at ease we should, and it certainly won't be doing our student patient relationship any harm. Hopefully next time my answers will be a bit more forthcoming. "Any change in your bowels, blood in any motions?" "How many years do you have left?" It is a good thing we are all polite.  
Joe de Silva
over 5 years ago
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5
89

Physiology of the pancreatic α-cell and glucagon secretion: role in glucose homeostasis and diabetes

The secretion of glucagon by pancreatic α-cells plays a critical role in the regulation of glycaemia. This hormone counteracts hypoglycaemia and opposes insulin actions by stimulating hepatic glucose synthesis and mobilization, thereby increasing blood glucose concentrations. During the last decade, knowledge of α-cell physiology has greatly improved, especially concerning molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this review, we have addressed recent findings on α-cell physiology and the regulation of ion channels, electrical activity, calcium signals and glucagon release. Our focus in this review has been the multiple control levels that modulate glucagon secretion from glucose and nutrients to paracrine and neural inputs. Additionally, we have described the glucagon actions on glycaemia and energy metabolism, and discussed their involvement in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Finally, some of the present approaches for diabetes therapy related to α-cell function are also discussed in this review. A better understanding of the α-cell physiology is necessary for an integral comprehension of the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the development of diabetes.  
joe.endocrinology-journals.org
over 4 years ago
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5
19

VeinViewer Technology on Varicose Veins Treatment

Hailed by Time Magazine as one of the best inventions of 2004, the VeinViewer was initially developed to aid blood sampling and phlebotomies. After using/ researching with the VeinViewer for more than 2 years, Clinica Miyake team decided to post this video to share what technology can help on phlebology diagnosis and treatment.Veinviewer veinviewer veinviewer veinviewer. Kasuo Miyake, MD, PhD (Medical Director -CRM 68.778)  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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5
171

Cerebrospinal fluid

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced from arterial blood by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and fourth ventricles by a combined process of diffusion, pinocytosis and active transfer. A small amount is also produced by ependymal cells. The choroid plexus consists of tufts of capillaries with thin fenestrated endothelial cells. These are covered by modified ependymal cells with bulbous microvilli. The total volume of CSF in the adult ranges from140 to 270 ml. The volume of the ventricles is about 25 ml. CSF is produced at a rate of 0.2 - 0.7 ml per minute or 600-700 ml per day. The circulation of CSF is aided by the pulsations of the choroid plexus and by the motion of the cilia of ependymal cells. CSF is absorbed across the arachnoid villi into the venous circulation and a significant amount probably also drains into lymphatic vessels around the cranial cavity and spinal canal. The arachnoid villi act as one-way valves between the subarachnoid space and the dural sinuses. The rate of absorption correlates with the CSF pressure. CSF acts as a cushion that protects the brain from shocks and supports the venous sinuses (primarily the superior sagittal sinus, opening when CSF pressure exceeds venous pressure). It also plays an important role in the homeostasis and metabolism of the central nervous system.  
neuropathology-web.org
about 4 years ago
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5
71

Inflammatory bowel disease

Diarrhoea of >6 weeks’ duration, especially with weight loss and where cancer is not suspected, warrants testing (such as full blood count, C reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, coeliac antibodies, and thyroid function)  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
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5
20

Blood Brain Barrier Part 2 - Circumventricular Organs

Visit http://www.DrNajeebLectures.com for 600+ videos on Basic Medical Sciences!  
youtube.com
almost 4 years ago
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5
56

Osteonecrosis of the Hip (Avascular Necrosis)

This disease affects the blood supply of the bone and leads to the breakdown of the hip joint. It can be caused by a hip dislocation or certain medical condi...  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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Tissue Identification.m4v

I'm studying the different tissues in my anatomy & physiology class this summer so I put together this slide show to run in a loop on my tv to help me learn to identify the slides. The slides include epithelial tissues, connective tissues, cartilage tissues, osseous tissue and blood.  
Nicole Chalmers
over 5 years ago
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4
158

Prolapsed Mitral Valve

The mitral valve (or bicuspid valve) separates the left atrium and left ventricle. Its function is to close as the heart contacts (i.e. when pressure increases in the ventricle) to prevent blood...  
eviscerator.tumblr.com
over 5 years ago
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4
70

What is acyanotic heart disease?

Acyanotic heart disease is a group of heart conditions where blood with oxygen mixes with blood with little oxygen in the heart. This mixing is not enough to...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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4
321

Fetal Circulation Right Before Birth

Watch how the blood flows through the fetal circulation and compare it to what happens in the baby's body. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician ...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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4
126

Nerve and Blood Supply of the Tongue | Kenhub

This is an article listing all the nerves, arteries and veins responsible for the innervation and blood supply of the tongue. Start learning them here.  
kenhub.com
about 5 years ago
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4
169

LFTs - Liver Function Tests

Almost every patient admitted to hospital will have their liver function tested, along with a full blood count, urea and electrolytes, glucose, and probably CRP. A typical set of LFTS will include: Bilirubin - can show pre-hepatic, intra-hepatic and post-hepatic causes of jaundice. A patient won't necessarily be visibly jaundiced if bilirubin is raised, especially if the bilirubin is not grossly elevated.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 5 years ago
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4
156

ABG Interpretation: Introduction and Course Overview (Lesson 1)

An overview of a 20 video course on understanding the arterial blood gas (ABG), followed by a brief introduction to the topic.  
YouTube
over 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 2njk5o?1444774020
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1326

LWW: Case Of The Month - April 2013

This month’s case is by David R Bell PhD, co-author of Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 3e (ISBN: 9781451110395) For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/Rhoades4e, with 15% off using the discount code: MEDUCATION. The case below is followed by a quiz question, allowing you a choice of diagnoses. Select the one letter section that best describes the patient’s condition. The Case A 28-year old woman has an unremarkable pregnancy through her first 28 weeks of gestation, with normal weight gain and no serious complications. She has no previous history of diabetes, hypertension of other systemic disease before or during her current pregnancy. During her 30-week checkup, her blood pressure measures 128/85, and she complains about feeling slightly more “bloated” than usual with swelling in her legs that seems to get more uncomfortable as the day goes on. Her obsterician recommends that she get more bed rest, stay off her feet as much as possible and return for evaluation in one week. At the one-week follow-up, the patient presents with noticable”puffiness” in her face, and a blood pressure of 145/95. She complains she has been developing headaches, sporadic blurred vision, right-sided discomfort and some shortness of breath. She has gained more than 10 lb (4.5kg) in the past week. A urinalysis on the patient revelas no glucose but a 3+ reading for protein. Her obstetrician decides to admit her immediately to a local tertiary care hospital for further evaluation. Over the next 24 hours, the patient’s urine output is recorded as 500mL and contains 6.8 grams of protein. Her plasma albumin level is 3.1 g/dl, hemacrit 48%, indirect bilirubin 1.5mg/dl and blood platelets=77000/uL, respectively. Her blood pressure is now 190/100. It is decided to try to deliver the foetus. The expelled placenta is small and shows signs of widespread ischmic damage. Within a week of delivery, the mother’s blood pressure returns to normal, and her oedema subsides. One month later, the mother shows no ill effects of thos later-term syndrome. Question What is the clinical diagnosis of this patient’s condition and its underlying pathophysiology? A. Gestational Hypertension B. Preeclampsia C. Gestational Diabetes D. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava Answer The correct answer is "B. Preeclampsia". The patient’s symptoms and laboratory findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Preeclampsia, which is a condition occurring in some pregnancies that causes life-threatening organ and whole body regulatory malfunctions. The patient’s negative urine glucose is inconsistent with gestational diabetes. Gestational hypertension or vena caval compression cannot explain all of the patient findings. The patient has three major abnormal findings- generalised oedema, hypertension and proteinuria which are all common in preeclampsia. Although sequalae of a normal pregnancy can include water and salt retention, bloating, modest hypertension and leg swelling (secondary to capillary fluid loss from increased lower limb capillary hydrostatic pressure due to compression of the inferior vena cava by the growing foetus/uterus), oedema in the head and upper extremities, a rapid 10 pound weight gain and shortness of breath suggests a generalized and serious oedematous state. The patient did not have hypertension before or within 20 weeks gestation (primary hypertension) and did not develop hypertension after the 20th week of pregnancy with no other abnormal findings (gestational hypertension). Hypertension with proteinuria occurring beyond the 20th week of pregnancy however is a hallmark of preeclampsia. In addition, the patient has hemolysis (elevated bilirubin and LDH levels), elevated liver enzyme levels and thrombocytopenia. This is called the HELLP syndrome (HELLP = Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets.), and is considered evidence of serious patient deterioration in preeclampsia. A urine output of 500 ml in 24 hours is 1/2 to 1/4 of normal output in a hydrated female and indicates renal insufficiency. Protein should never be found in the urine and indicates loss of capillaries integrity in glomeruli which normally are not permeable to proteins. The patient has substantial 24 urine protein loss and hypoalbuminemia. However, generally plasma albumin levels must drop below 2.5 gm/dl to decrease plasma oncotic pressure enough to cause general oedema. The patient’s total urinary protein loss was insufficient in this regard. Capillary hyperpermeability occurs with preeclampsia and, along with hypertension, could facilitate capillary water efflux and generalized oedema. However myogenic constriction of pre-capillary arterioles could reduce the effect of high blood pressure on capillary water efflux. An early increase in hematocrit in this patient suggests hemoconcentration which could be caused by capillary fluid loss but the patient’s value of 48 is unremarkable and of little diagnostic value because increased hematocrit occurs in both preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. PGI2, PGE2 and NO, produced during normal pregnancy, cause vasorelaxation and luminal expansion of uterine arteries, which supports placental blood flow and development. Current theory suggests that over production of endothelin, thromboxane and oxygen radicals in preeclampsia antagonize vasorelaxation while stimulating platelet aggregation, microthrombi formation and endothelial destruction. These could cause oedema, hypertension, renal/hepatic deterioration and placental ischemia with release of vasotoxic factors. The patient’s right-sided pain is consistent with liver pathology (secondary to hepatic DIC or oedematous distention). Severe hypertension in preeclampsia can lead to maternal end organ damage, stroke, and death. Oedematous distension of the liver can cause hepatic rupture and internal hemorrhagic shock. Having this patient carry the baby to term markedly risks the life of the mother and is not considered current acceptable clinical practice. Delivery of the foetus and termination of the pregnancy is the only certain way to end preeclampsia. Read more This case is by David R Bell PhD, co-author of Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 3e (ISBN: 9781451110395) For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/Rhoades4e. Save 15% (and get free P&P) on this, and a whole host of other LWW titles at (lww.co.uk)[http://lww.co.uk] when you use the code MEDUCATION when you check out! About LWW/ Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (LWW) is a leading publisher of high-quality content for students and practitioners in medical and related fields. Their text and review products, eBooks, mobile apps and online solutions support students, educators, and instiutions throughout the professional’s career. LWW are proud to partner with Meducation.  
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 kphjit?1444774023
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4068

Acids and bases as a balancing act to sustain life

This is an excerpt from "Fluids and Electrolytes Made Incredibly Easy! 1st UK Edition" by William N. Scott. For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/Fande. Save 15% (and get free P&P) on this, and a whole host of other LWW titles at lww.co.uk when you use the code MEDUCATION when you check out! Introduction The chemical reactions that sustain life depend on a delicate balance – or homeostasis – between acids and bases in the body. Even a slight imbalance can profoundly affect metabolism and essential body functions. Several conditions, such as infection or trauma, and certain medications can affect acid-base balance. However, to understand this balance, you need to understand some basic chemistry. Understanding pH Understanding acids and bases requires an understanding of pH, a calculation based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. It may also be defi ned as the amount of acid or base within a solution. Acids consist of molecules that can give up, or donate, hydrogen ions to other molecules. Carbonic acid is an acid that occurs naturally in the body. Bases consist of molecules that can accept hydrogen ions; bicarbonate is one example of a base. A solution that contains more base than acid has fewer hydrogen ions, so it has a higher pH. A solution with a pH above 7 is a base, or alkaline. A solution that contains more acid than base has more hydrogen ions, so it has a lower pH. A solution with a pH below 7 is an acid, or acidotic. Getting your PhD in pH A patient’s acid-base balance can be assessed if the pH of their blood is known. Because arterial blood is usually used to measure pH, this discussion focuses on arterial samples. Arterial blood is normally slightly alkaline, ranging from 7.35 to 7.45. A pH level within that range represents a balance between the concentration of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. The pH of blood is generally maintained in a ratio of 20 parts bicarbonate to 1 part carbonic acid. A pH below 6.8 or above 7.8 is usually fatal. Too low Under certain conditions, the pH of arterial blood may deviate significantly from its normal narrow range. If the blood’s hydrogen ion concentration increases or bicarbonate level decreases, pH may decrease. In either case, a decrease in pH below 7.35 signals acidosis. Too high If the blood’s bicarbonate level increases or hydrogen ion concentration decreases, pH may rise. In either case, an increase in pH above 7.45 signals alkalosis. Regulating acids and bases A person’s well-being depends on their ability to maintain a normal pH. A deviation in pH can compromise essential body processes, including electrolyte balance, activity of critical enzymes, muscle contraction and basic cellular function. The body normally maintains pH within a narrow range by carefully balancing acidic and alkaline elements. When one aspect of that balancing act breaks down, the body can’t maintain a healthy pH as easily, and problems arise.  
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
over 6 years ago