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48

cope.cgi

Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia  
copewithcytokines.de
over 5 years ago
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24

Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer

As with other books in the Molecular Pathology Library Series, Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer bridges the gap between the molecular specialist and the clinical practitioner, including the surgical pathologist who now has a key role in decisions regarding molecular targeted therapy for lung cancer. Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer provides the latest information and current insights into the molecular basis for lung cancer, including precursor and preinvasive lesions, molecular diagnosis, molecular targeted therapy, molecular prognosis, molecular radiology and related fields for lung cancer generally and for the specific cell types. As many fundamental concepts about lung cancer have undergone revision in only the past few years, this book will likely be the first to comprehensively cover the new molecular pathology of lung cancer. It provides a foundation in this field for pathologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, thoracic surgeons, thoracic radiologists and their trainees, physician assistants, and nursing staff.  
Google Books
over 5 years ago
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1
19

Lung Cancer | Doctor | Patient

The management guidelines for small-cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) in this article are taken from the guidelines published...  
Patient.co.uk
over 5 years ago
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1
65

Untitled Document

The specialized nodal and conducting cells of the heart are responsible for heartbeat. These specialized nodal and conducting cells tend to contract weakly because they contain very few contractile cells (myofibrils). What makes these cells unique is that they can easily generate an action potential (electrical impulse that causes the heart to beat) without the assistance of neurotransmitters or any nervous system input like any regular neurons. Along with these special properties of self-excitability, these cells can also rapidly conduct impulses to atrial and ventricular muscles. This explains why after death, the heart continues pumping because of the nodal and conducting cells; this is because the nodal and conducting cells are not hooked up with any neurotransmitters. Therefore, these specialized cells provide a self-excitatory system for the heart to generate impulses and a transmission system for rapid conduction of impulses in the heart.  
odec.ca
over 5 years ago
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1
40

Viruses

The virus particle contains enzymatic machinery that transcribes each of the dsRNA molecules into a mRNA (complete with cap) and exports these into the cytosol of the infected cell.  
users.rcn.com
over 5 years ago
Preview
3
114

Immune Response | Geeky Medics

An illustrated guide to the cells of the immune system and the components of the normal immune response, complete with a super helpful summary diagram  
Geeky Medics
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
23

Clinical applications of preimplantation genetic testing

Genetic diagnostic technologies are rapidly changing the way medicine is practiced. Preimplantation genetic testing is a well established application of genetic testing within the context of in vitro fertilization cycles. It involves obtaining a cell(s) from a developing embryo in culture, which is then subjected to genetic diagnostic analysis; the resulting information is used to guide which embryos are transferred into the uterus. The potential applications and use of this technology have increased in recent years. Experts agree that preimplantation genetic diagnosis is clinically appropriate for many known genetic disorders. However, some applications of such testing, such as preimplantation genetic screening for aneuploidy, remain controversial. Clinical data suggest that preimplantation genetic screening may be useful, but further studies are needed to quantify the size of the effect and who would benefit most.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
40

Drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis: looking backwards to move forwards

Over the past 40 years the clinical picture has improved for patients with rheumatoid arthritis thanks to key steps in drug development and care strategy. These steps include the introduction of methotrexate in 1980 and the first inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in 2000. This was followed by the development of new biotechnology products to target other cytokines, cell subsets, and cell interaction pathways. All these products are expensive drugs with obvious consequences for health systems with limited resources.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
2

Italian doctors behind an unproved stem cell therapy face prosecution

A group of doctors, scientists, and hospital directors have been accused by the prosecutor of Turin of administering an untested and potentially dangerous treatment involving stem cells to hundreds of people in defiance of safety and administrative regulations.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
10

Drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis: looking backwards to move forwards

Over the past 40 years the clinical picture has improved for patients with rheumatoid arthritis thanks to key steps in drug development and care strategy. These steps include the introduction of methotrexate in 1980 and the first inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in 2000. This was followed by the development of new biotechnology products to target other cytokines, cell subsets, and cell interaction pathways. All these products are expensive drugs with obvious consequences for health systems with limited resources.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
3
0
14

In the case of severe postpartum haemorrhage, is it always necessary to give packed red cells?

In the case of severe postpartum haemorrhage, is it always necessary to give packed red cells?  
fathima mohideen
over 8 years ago
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13

Is there any other source of hydrogen ions and lactate production in a cell apart from glycolysis?

Hi all, I was wondering if you know of any other source of hydrogen ions and lactate production in a cell APART from glycolysis? Is it produced by normal cellular processes? According to my understanding, H+ and lactate are produced under hypoxic conditions. Glucose is broken down into lactic acid with then dissociates into lactate and H+. Thanks!  
Gemma Loach
almost 8 years ago
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0
58

Why does omeprazole (Losec/Prilosec) accumulate around parietal cells?

Where exactly does omeprazole accumulate and why? Does it accumulate in the apical canaliculi of parietal cells or in the cells themselves? Is this due solely to protonization of the molecule in a low pH environment and then subsequent ion trapping?  
Joshua Lotz
almost 8 years ago
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0
102

Could these results indicate hepatitis?

Could these results indicate hepatitis? White cell count - 22 x 109/L (4-11) C-reactive protein (CRP)- 256 mg/L (<10) Serum alkaline phosphatase - 178U/L (45-105) Serum gamma glutamyl tranferase - 437 U/L (<50) Serum aspartate aminotransferase - 297 U/L (1-31) Serum total bilirubin - 10 µmol/L (1-22) Serum amylase - 2018 U/L (60-180) Serum urea - 6.7 mmol/L (2.5-7.5) Serum creatinine - 98 µmol/l (60-110) Raised white cell count and CRP indicate inflammation and liver-function tests are abnormal (except bilirubin). Would abnormal ALP, AST & GGT indicate hepatitis or does a normal bilirubin indicate normal breakdown of red cells & therefore normal liver function? Though my real problem here is I know that these are liver function tests, but not WHY they are liver function tests (and therefore how else abnormal results could occur...) Cheers.  
b d
almost 8 years ago
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0
11

How can I identify reticulocyte in a smear?

Hi Does reticulocyte can be identified only by may grunwald giemsa stained smear? Thanks.  
tal kalimian
almost 8 years ago
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0
23

Lactic Acidosis with Hypokalaemia

Why exactly does this occur. I understand salbutamol increases K+ entry into cells, which therefore increases H+ entry into the blood (K+/H+ exchange) but I thought this would be a metabolic acidosis - why then does lactate build up?  
Ricky Rimmer
over 7 years ago
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0
124

CD8 clonal selection....it's hardly by chance is it?

one thing that nobody mentions is how does that specific CD8 cell happen to come along? In MHC II the APC travels to the lymph node to find that specific CD4 cell which then undergoes clonal expansion. Selected the specific tools for the job from the shed (lymph node) But with the infected cell displaying MHC I. Does the SPECIFIC CD8 (surely it needs to be selected from the tool shed?) just by chance happened to come along? ...and if that SPECIFIC CD8 cell can only undergo clonal selection with a specific CD4 cell help. So how does that specific CD4 cell get selected in the lymph node if there was no APC conversation with the lymph store? Hmmmmmm?  
frankie morgan
over 6 years ago
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glucocorticoid pre-term improve lung maturity

how does it work? Does it reduce the inflammatory process which can damage the surfactant producing cells or does it increase the production of lung surfactant. If yes, then can we give glucocorticoids in Adult respiratory distress syndrome?  
alex bwn
about 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 113s0nw?1444773969
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378

The Medical Book Warzone... Which book is best?

As the days are slowly getting longer, and spring looms in the near future, it can only be the deep inhale of the medical student ready to embrace the months of revision that lies ahead. Books are dusted off the shelves and Gray's anatomy wrenched open with an immense sigh of distain. But which book should we be pulling off the shelves? If you're anything like me then you're a medical book hoarder. Now let me "Google define" this geeky lexis lingo - a person who collects medical books (lots of medical books) and believes by having the book they will automatically do better!... I wish with a deep sigh! So when I do actually open the page of one, as they are usually thrown across the bed-room floor always closed, it is important to know which one really is the best to choose?!? These are all the crazy thoughts of the medical book hoarder, however, there is some sanity amongst the madness. That is to say, when you find a really good medical book and get into the topic you start to learn stuff thick and fast, and before you know it you’ll be drawing out neuronal pathways and cardiac myocyte action potentials. Yet, the trick is not picking up the shiniest and most expensive book, oh no, otherwise we would all be walking around with the 130 something pounds gray’s anatomy atlas. The trick is to pick a book that speaks to you, and one in which you can get your head around – It’s as if the books each have their own personality. Here are a list of books that I would highly recommend: Tortora – Principles of anatomy and physiology Tortora is a fantastic book for year 1 medical students, it is the only book I found that truly bridges the gap between A levels and medical students without going off on a ridiculous and confusing tangent. While it lacks subtle detail, it is impressive in how simplified it can make topics appear, and really helps build a foundation to anatomy and physiology knowledge The whole book is easy to follow and numerous pretty pictures and diagrams, which make learning a whole lot easier. Tortora scores a whopping 8/10 by the medical book hoarder Sherwood – From cells to systems Sherwood is the marmite of the medical book field, you either love this book or your hate it. For me, Sherwood used to be my bible in year two. It goes into intricate physiological detail in every area of the body. It has great explanations and really pushes your learning to a greater level than tortora in year one. The book doesn’t just regurgitate facts it really explores concepts. However: I cannot be bias, and I must say that I know a number of people who hate this book in every sense of the word. A lot of people think there is too much block text without distractions such as pictures or tables. They think the text is very waffly, not getting straight to the point and sometimes discusses very advanced concepts that do not appear relevant The truth be told, if you want to study from Sherwood you need to a very good attention span and be prepared to put in the long-hours of work so it’s not for everyone. Nonetheless, if you manage to put the effort in, you will reap the rewards! Sherwood scores a fair 5-6/10 by the medical book hoarder Moore & Dalley – Clinical anatomy At first glance Moore & Dalley can be an absolute mindfield with an array of pastel colours that all amalgamate into one! It’s also full of table after table of muscle and blood vessels with complicated diagrams mixed throughout. This is not a medical book for the faint hearted, and if your foundation of anatomy is a little shakey you’ll fall further down the rabbit hole than Alice ever did. That being said, for those who have mastered the simplistic anatomy of tortora and spent hours pondering anatomy flash cards, this may be the book for you. Moore & Dalley does not skimp on the detail and thus if you’re willing to learn the ins and out of the muscles of the neck then look no further. Its sections are actually broken down nicely into superficial and deep structures and then into muscles, vessels, nerves and lymph, with big sections on organs. This is a book for any budding surgeon! Moore & Dalley scores a 6/10 by the medical book hoarder Macleod’s clinical examination Clinical examination is something that involves practical skills and seeing patients, using your hands to manipulate the body in ways you never realised you could. Many people will argue that the day of the examination book is over, and it’s all about learning while on the job and leaving the theory on the book shelf. I would like to oppose this theory, with claims that a little understanding of theory can hugely improve your clinical practice. Macleod’s takes you through basic history and examination skills within each of the main specialties, discussing examination sequences and giving detailed explanations surrounding examination findings. It is a book that you can truly relate to what you have seen or what you will see on the wards. My personal opinion is that preparation is the key, and macleod’s is the ultimate book to give you that added confidence become you tackle clinical medicine on the wards Macleod’s clinical examination scores a 7/10 by the medical book hoarder Oxford textbook of clinical pathology When it comes to learning pathology there are a whole host of medical books on the market from underwood to robbins. Each book has its own price range and delves into varying degrees of complexity. Robbins is expensive and a complex of mix of cellular biology and pathophysiological mechanisms. Underwood is cheap, but lacking in certain areas and quite difficult to understand certain topics. The Oxford textbook of clinical pathology trumps them all. The book is fantastic for any second year or third year attempting to learn pathology and classify disease. It is the only book that I have found that neatly categories diseases in a way in which you can follow, helping you to understand complications of certain diseases, while providing you with an insight into pathology. After reading this book you’ll be sure to be able to classify all the glomerulonephritis’s while having at least some hang of the pink and purples of the histological slide. Oxford textbook of clinical pathology scores a 8/10 by the medical book hoarder Medical Pharmacology at glance Pharmacology is the arch nemesis of the Peninsula student (well maybe if we discount anatomy!!), hours of time is spent avoiding the topic followed immediately by hours of complaining we are never taught any of it. Truth be told, we are taught pharmacology, it just comes in drips and drabs. By the time we’ve learnt the whole of the clotting cascade and the intrinsic mechanisms of the P450 pathway, were back on to ICE’ing the hell out of patients and forget what we learned in less than a day. Medical pharmacology at a glance however, is the saviour of the day. I am not usually a fan of the at a glance books. I find that they are just a book of facts in a completely random order that don’t really help unless you’re an expert in the subject. The pharmacology version is different: It goes into just the right amount of detail without throwing you off the cliff with discussion about bioavailability and complex half-life curves relating to titration and renal function. This book has the essential drugs, it has the essential facts, and it is the essential length, meaning you don’t have to spend ours reading just to learn a few facts! In my opinion, this is one of those books that deserves the mantel piece! Medical Pharmacology at a glance scores a whopping 9/10 by the medical book hoarder. Anatomy colouring book This is the last book in our discussion, but by far the greatest. After the passing comments about this book by my housemates, limited to the sluggish boy description of “it’s terrible” or “its S**t”, I feel I need to hold my own and defend this books corner. If your description of a good book is one which is engaging, interesting, fun, interaction, and actually useful to your medical learning then this book has it all. While it may be a colouring book and allows your autistic side to run wild, the book actually covers a lot of in depth anatomy with some superb pictures that would rival any of the big anatomical textbooks. There is knowledge I have gained from this book that I still reel off during the question time onslaught of surgery. Without a doubt my one piece of advice to all 1st and 2nd years would be BUY THIS BOOK and you will not regret it! Anatomy colouring book scores a tremendous 10/10 by the medical book hoarder Let the inner GEEK run free and get buying:)!!  
Benjamin Norton
over 7 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 3p9kow?1444773972
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1712

A medical mystery for Mother's Day...

I'd like to tell you a curious story. Jane was a 52 year old woman in need of a kidney transplant. Thankfully she had three loving sons who were all very happy to give her one of theirs. So Jane's doctors performed tests to find out which of the three boys would be the best match, but the results surprised everyone. In the words of Jeremy Kyle, the DNA test showed that Jane was not the mother of two of the boys... Hang on, said Jane, child birth is not something you easily forget. They're definitely mine. And she was right. It turns out Jane was a chimera. Chimerism is the existence of two genetically different cell lines in one organism. This can arise for a number of reasons- it can be iatrogenic, like when someone has an organ transplant, or it can be naturally occurring. In Jane's case, it began in her mum's womb, with two eggs that had been fertilised by different sperm creating two embryos. Ordinarily, they would develop into two non-identical twins. However in Jane's case the two balls of cells fused early in development creating one person with both cell lines. Thus when doctors did the first tissue typing tests on Jane, just by chance they had only sampled the 'yellow' cell line which was responsible for one of her sons. When they went back again they found the 'pink' cell line which had given rise to the other two boys. This particular type of human chimerism is thought to be pretty rare- there are only 30 case reports in the literature. (Though remarkably both House and CSI's Gil Grissom have encountered cases.) What happens far more frequently is fetal microchimerism- which occurs in pregnant women when cells cross the placenta from baby to mum. This is awesome because we used to think the placenta was this barrier which prevented any cells crossing over. Now we've found both cells and free floating DNA cross the placenta, and that the cells can hang around for decades after the baby was born. Why? As is often the case in medicine we're not sure but one theory is that the fetal cells might have healing properties for mum. In pregnant mice who've had a heart attack, fetal cells can travel to the mum's heart where the develop into new heart muscle to repair the damage. Whilst we're still in the early stages of understanding why this happens, we already have a practical application. In the United States today, a pregnant woman can have a blood test which isn't looking for abnormalities in her DNA but in that of her fetus. The DNA test isn't conclusive enough to be used to diagnose genetic conditions, but it is a good screening test for certain trisomies including Down's syndrome. Now, we started with a curious tale, so lets close with a curious fact, and one that's appropriate for Mother's Day: This exchange of cells across the placenta is a two way process. So you may well have some of your mum's cells rushing through your veins right now. In my case they're probably the ones that tell me to put on sensible shoes and put that boy down... (FYI: This is a story I originally posted on my own blog)  
Dr Catherine Carver
over 7 years ago