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ChildPsychiatry

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E-learning module in psychiatry on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

As part of my 5th year Senior Clinical Project I developed a psychiatry e-learning module in the form of a virtual patient on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), constructed using a PowerPoint template from the e-learning department at Cardiff University. This consisted of a simulated ADHD case, with the student taking the role of a General Practitioner and Specialist Paediatrician involved in the patient’s care. During the course of the module the user is required to make clinical and therapeutic decisions regarding the patient, with educational material revealed to them as they complete a selection of multiple-choice questions on the disorder. The module has since been made available as a resource for future students via blackboard, which can be found at: https://learningcentral.cf.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/Medic/Undergraduate/Virtual%20Patient/src/adhd/adhd.htm Before developing the module, I conducted a thorough literature search on ‘e-learning and medical education’, in order to access current literature and gain an insight into some of the educational theory surrounding the subject. A combination of textbook research, published literature, and national guidelines were then used to establish an extensive knowledge of ADHD from which the module content could be derived. I strongly believe my learning resource will help improve future students' understanding of the disorder, which only forms a small part of the current fourth year psychological medicine curriculum.  
Oliver Mumby
over 6 years ago
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516

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

An overview of ADHD  
Harriet Blundell
almost 6 years ago
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4
96

Autism Screening Tutorial

Tutorial on evaluating for signs of autism in toddlers, produced by Help Autism Now Society.  
OSCE Videos
almost 5 years ago
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158

World Down Syndrome Day #DearFutureMom

A heartwarming message from 15 people with Down syndrome to a future mom.  
YouTube
almost 5 years ago
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63

Admiring Autism: Busting 'autism myths' with a camera - BBC News

Photographer Sara Dunn is "challenging the myths surrounding autism" with a camera, her own son and other affected families.  
BBC News
over 4 years ago
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53

Down Syndrome Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination, Complications

Down syndrome is by far the most common and best known chromosomal disorder in humans and the most common cause of intellectual disability. It is characterized by intellectual disability , dysmorphic facial features, and other distinctive phenotypic traits.  
emedicine.medscape.com
over 4 years ago
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Down Syndrome

What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a developmental disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (which is why the disorder is also called "trisomy 21"). Having an extra copy of this chromosome means that each gene may be producing more protein product than normal. Cells seem to tolerate this better than having…  
Human Anatomy and Physiology
over 4 years ago
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Food that help improve Down Syndrome in infants.

I've heard some researches found that food nutrients can improve some genetic diseases. I need to know what kind of food that help improve Down Syndrome in infants.  
Kala Young
almost 6 years ago
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Is ADHD a difficult diagnosis?

In a recent article in the BMJ the author wonders about the reasons beyond the rising trend diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The article attempts to infer reasons for this. One possible reason was that the diagnostic criteria especially DSM may seem for some to be more inclusive than ICD-10. The speculation may explain the rise of the diagnosis where DSM is used officially or have an influence. In a rather constructive way, an alternative to rushing to diagnosis is offered and discussed in some details. The tentative deduction that the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) may be one of the causes of rising diagnosis, due to raising the cut-off of age, and widening the inclusion criteria, as opposed to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10), captured my attention. On reading the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research (DCR) and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, I found them quite similar in most aspects, even the phraseology that starts with 'Often' in many diagnostic criteria, they seem to differ a bit in age. In a way both classification, are attempting to describe the disorder, however, it sounds as if someone is trying to explain a person's behaviour to you, however, this is not a substitute to direct clinical learning, and observing the behaviour, as if the missing sentence is 'when you see the person, it will be clearer'. El-Islam agrees with the notion that DSM-5 seems to be a bit more inclusive than ICD-10. A colleague of mine who is a child psychiatrist and she is doing her MSc. thesis in ADHD told me, that DSM-5 seems to be a substantial improvement as compared to its predecessor. The criteria - to her - though apparently are more inclusive, they are more descriptive with many examples, and she infers that this will payback in the reliability of the diagnosis. She hopes gene research can yield in biological tests for implicated genes and neurotransmitters in ADHD e.g. DRD4, DAT, gene 5,6,11 etc. One child psychiatrist, regretted the fact that misdiagnosis and under-diagnoses, deprive the patient from one of the most effective treatments in psychiatry. It is hoped the nearest forthcoming diagnostic classification (ICD-11), will address the issue of the diagnosis from a different perspective, or else converge with DSM-5 to provide coherence and a generalised newer standard of practice. The grading of ADHD into mild, moderate, and severe seem to blur the border between disorder and non-disorder, however, this quasi-dimensional approach seems realistic, it does not translate yet directly in differences in treatment approaches as with the case of mild, moderate, severe, and severe depression with psychotic symptoms, or intellectual disability. The author states that one counter argument could be that child psychiatrists are better at diagnosing the disorder. I wonder if this is a reflection of a rising trend of a disorder. If ADHD is compared to catatonia, it is generally agreed that catatonia is less diagnosed now, may be the epidemiology of ADHD is not artefact, and that we may need to look beyond the diagnosis to learn for example from environmental factors. Another issue is that there seems to be significant epidemiological differences in the rates of diagnosis across cultures. This may give rise to whether ADHD can be classified as a culture-bound syndrome, or whether it is influenced by culture like anorexia nervosa, or it may be just because of the raising awareness to such disorders. Historically, it is difficult to attempt to pinpoint what would be the closest predecessor to ADHD. For schizophrenia and mania, older terms may have included insanity, for depression it was probably melancholia, there are other terms that still reside in contemporary culture e.g. hypochondriasis, hysteria, paranoia etc. Though, it would be too simplistic to believe that what is meant by these terms was exactly what ancient cultures meant by them, but, they are not too far. ADHD seems to lack such historical underpinning. Crichton described a disorder he refers to as 'mental restlessness'. Still who is most often credited with the first description of ADHD, in his 1902 address to the Royal College of Physicians. Still describes a number of patients with problems in self-regulation or, as he then termed it, 'moral control' (De Zeeuw et al, 2011). The costs and the risks related to over-diagnosis, ring a warning bell, to enhance scrutiny in the diagnosis, due to subsequent stigma, costs, and lowered societal expectations. They all seem to stem from the consequences of the methodology of diagnosis. The article touches in an important part in the psychiatric diagnosis, and classifications, which is the subjective nature of disorders. The enormous effort done in DSM-5 & ICD-10 reflect the best available evidence, but in order to eliminate the subjective nature of illness, a biological test seems to be the only definitive answer, to ADHD in particular and psychiatry in general. Given that ADHD is an illness and that it is a homogeneous thing; developments in gene studies would seem to hold the key to understanding our current status of diagnosis. The suggested approach for using psychosocial interventions and then administering treatment after making sure that it is a must, seems quite reasonable. El-Islam, agrees that in ADHD caution prior to giving treatment is a recommended course of action. Another consultant child psychiatrist mentioned that one hour might not be enough to reach a comfortable diagnosis of ADHD. It may take up to 90 minutes, to become confident in a clinical diagnosis, in addition to commonly used rating scales. Though on the other hand, families and carers may hypothetically raise the issue of time urgency due to scholastic pressure. In a discussion with Dr Hend Badawy, a colleague child psychiatrist; she stated the following with regards to her own experience, and her opinion about the article. The following is written with her consent. 'ADHD is a clinically based diagnosis that has three core symptoms, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in - at least - two settings. The risk of over-diagnosis in ADHD is one of the potentially problematic, however, the risk of over-diagnosis is not confined to ADHD, it can be present in other psychiatric diagnoses, as they rely on subjective experience of the patient and doctor's interviewing skills. In ADHD in particular the risk of under-diagnosis is even more problematic. An undiagnosed child who has ADHD may suffer various complications as moral stigma of 'lack of conduct' due to impuslivity and hyperactivity, poor scholastic achievement, potential alienation, ostracization and even exclusion by peer due to perceived 'difference', consequent feelings of low self esteem and potential revengeful attitude on the side of the child. An end result, would be development of substance use disorders, or involvement in dissocial behaviours. The answer to the problem of over-diagnosis/under-diagnosis can be helped by an initial step of raising public awareness of people about ADHD, including campaigns to families, carers, teachers and general practitioners. These campaigns would help people identify children with possible ADHD. The only risk is that child psychiatrists may be met with children who their parents believe they might have the disorder while they do not. In a way, raising awareness can serve as a sensitive laboratory investigation. The next step is that the child psychiatrist should scrutinise children carefully. The risk of over-diagnosis can be limited via routine using of checklists, to make sure that the practice is standardised and that every child was diagnosed properly according to the diagnostic criteria. The use of proper scales as Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in its two forms (for parents SDQ-P and for teachers SDQ-T) which enables the assessor to learn about the behaviour of the child in two different settings. Conner's scale can help give better understanding of the magnitude of the problem. Though some people may voice criticism as they are mainly filled out by parents and teachers, they are the best tools available at hands. Training on diagnosis, regular auditing and restricting doctors to a standard practice of ensuring that the child and carer have been interviewed thoroughly can help minimise the risk of over-diagnosis. The issue does not stop by diagnosis, follow-up can give a clue whether the child is improving on the management plan or not. The effects and side effects of treatments as methylphenidate should be monitored regularly, including regular measurement height and weight, paying attention to nausea, poor appetite, and even the rare side effects which are usually missed. More restrictions and supervision on the medication may have an indirect effect on enhancing the diagnostic assessment. To summarise, the public advocacy does not increase the risk of over-diagnosis, as asking about suicidal ideas does not increase its risk. The awareness may help people learn more and empower them and will lead to more acceptance of the diagnosed child in the community. Even the potential risk of having more case loads for doctors to assess for ADHD may help give more exposure of cases, and reaching more meaningful epidemiological finding. From my experience, it is quite unlikely to have marked over-representation of children who the families suspect ADHD without sufficient evidence. ADHD remains a clinical diagnosis, and it is unlikely that it will be replaced by a biological marker or an imaging test in the near future. After all, even if there will be objective diagnostic tests, without clinical diagnostic interviewing their value will be doubtful. It is ironic that the two most effective treatments in psychiatry methylphenidate and Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) are the two most controversial treatments. May be because both were used prior to having a full understanding of their mechanism of action, may be because, on the outset both seem unusual, electricity through the head, and a stimulant for hyperactive children. Authored by E. Sidhom, H. Badawy DISCLAIMER The original post is on The BMJ doc2doc website at http://doc2doc.bmj.com/blogs/clinicalblog/#plckblogpage=BlogPost&plckpostid=Blog%3A15d27772-5908-4452-9411-8eef67833d66Post%3Acb6e5828-8280-4989-9128-d41789ed76ee BMJ Article: (http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f6172). Bibliography Badawy, H., personal communication, 2013 El-Islam, M.F., personal communication, 2013 Thomas R, Mitchell GK, B.L., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are we helping or harming?, British Medical Journal, 2013, Vol. 5(347) De Zeeuw P., Mandl R.C.W., Hulshoff-Pol H.E., et al., Decreased frontostriatal microstructural organization in ADHD. Human Brain Mapping. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.21335, 2011) Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994 International Classification of Diseases, World Health Organization, 1992  
Dr Emad Sidhom
almost 5 years ago
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Autism and Alzheimer's

We strive to educate people on natural solutions to health.  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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A brain system that appears to compensate for autism, OCD, and dyslexia

Individuals with five neurodevelopmental disorders -- autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, dyslexia, and Specific Language Impairment -- appear to...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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'Master regulator' gene - long tied to autism disorders - stimulates other genes in early brain development

Chemical modifications to DNA's packaging - known as epigenetic changes - can activate or repress genes involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and early brain development, according to a...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Link between ADHD and conduct disorder with alcohol and tobacco use in young teens

A new study links ADHD and conduct disorder in young adolescents with increased alcohol and tobacco use.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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MMR vaccine and autism: study finds 'no harmful association'

In a study of more than 95,000 children, researchers found no link between the MMR vaccine and greater risk of autism, even among children at higher risk for the condition.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Violent video games not linked to aggression in adults with autism

Effects of violent games on aggression are similar for adults with and without autism, study findsFollowing the 2012 shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, some in the media...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Parental concerns strongly predict developmental issues, including autism spectrum disorder

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can develop symptoms before 2 years of age and usually can be diagnosed by 3 years of age; early identification of ASD is associated with improved...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Autism: new studies investigate diagnosis time and identify epigenetic signatures

Across two new studies, Johns Hopkins and Oregon State researchers identify epigenetic variations associated with ASD in parental sperm and assess diagnosis time for ASD children.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Maternal gestational diabetes linked to autism risk for offspring

A new study suggests that exposure to gestational diabetes while in utero could increase the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder for children.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Study finds gestational diabetes associated with greater risk of autism in children

Children whose mothers developed gestational diabetes by the 26th week of pregnancy were at increased risk of developing autism later in life, according to a new Kaiser Permanente study...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago
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Autism's early neuronal 'neighborhood'

SDSU scientists find that in children with autism, sensorimotor regions of the brain become overconnected at the expense of later-developing higher-order functionsIn...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 3 years ago