FreeDem Videos Hope to Boost Ireland's Brain Health and Tackle Fears About Memory Loss 10 quirky animated videos addressing common concerns about memory loss...
about 5 years ago
This is a narrated power point presentation on dementia, with a focus on Alzheimer's Disease. It covers: pathology, symptoms and signs, assessment, investigation, differential diagnoses and management.
over 8 years ago
After seeing a lot of Nilaqua on the internet recently, I decided to give the product a go. I was a little sceptical as I haven't heard of it before and dry shampoo products never seem to work that well. However, the lady at norinse.co.uk assures me Nilaqua is a water based product and is NOT a dry shampoo, so works really well. Its kinda like a liquid solution which you rub into the hair, creating a bubbly lather and then towel off the residue and with that the dirt is lifted away with the towel. I bought it to help care for my mum who is currently wheelchair bound and her shower is such a nightmare to get in and out off. My mum is very proud of her appearance so not washing is very humiliating for her. I brought a 200ml bottle, it cost around £4.50 we've been using it every couple of days and has lasted for about 2 weeks. So I shall be buying the larger size next time. It leaves the hair soft, manageable and most of all clean!! So would really would recommend! You do have to get used to it though, applying enough so the hair is saturated! My colleague noticed it is now in the NHS catalogue, so have approached purchasing to get some shampoo and body wash in for our palliative unit. Should save a lot of time compare to bed bathing & have them nice and clean for family visiting. I'll write another update after I have tested it I the hospital to see how it does in a ward environment.
about 5 years ago
Complications of High Blood Pressure or Hypertension can be a multitude of deadly diseases including Heart Attack, Stroke, Kidney Failure, Vision Loss, etc.
about 6 years ago
Through different periods of the Egyptian history from Pharaonic, Greco-Roman, Coptic, Islamic and Modern Era; Egyptians tend to respect, appreciate and care for elderly. There is also a rich Eastern Christian tradition in respecting and taking care of old people that has continued since the first centuries of Christianity. Churches used to develop retirement homes served by monastic personnel and nurses. Egyptian culture traditionally linked some aspects of mental illnesses to sin, possession of evil, separation from the divine and it is usually associated with stigmatisation for all family members. However, forgetfulness with ageing was normalised. Until now, it seems that the difference between normal ageing and dementia is blurred for some people. Recently, the term 'Alzheimer' became popular, and some people use it as synonymous to forgetfulness. El-Islam, stated that some people erroneously pronounce it as 'Zeheimer' removing the 'Al' assuming it is the Arabic equivalent to the English 'the'. In 2010, a film was produced with the title 'Zeheimer' confirming the mispronunciation. Elderly face many health challenges which affect their quality of life. Dementia is one of these challenges as it is considered to be one of the disorders which attack elderly and affect their memory, mental abilities, independence, decision making and most cognitive functions. Therefore, the focus on dementia has increased around the world due to the rapid spread of the syndrome and the economical and psychosocial burden it cause for patients, families and communities. (Grossber and Kamat 2011, Alzheimer’s Association 2009, Woods et al. 2009). In recent years, the proportion of older people is increasing due to the improvement in health care and scientific development. The demographic transition with ageing of the population is a global phenomenon which may demand international, national, regional and local action. In Egypt the ageing population at the age of 65 and older are less than 5% of the Egyptian population (The World FactBook, 2012), yet, the World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that a demographic shift is going to happen as most of the rapid ageing population will transfer to the low and middle income countries in the near future (WHO, 2012). Egyptian statistics assert this shift. The Information Decision Support Center published the first comprehensive study of the elderly in Egypt in 2008. According to the report, in 1986, 5 percent of Egyptians were age 60 and older. In 2015, they will make up to 11 percent of the population and in 2050; over a fifth. Caring of older persons constitutes an increasing segment of the Egyptian labor market. However, nation wide statistics about number of dementia sufferers in Egypt may be unavailable but the previous demographic transition is expected to be accompanied by an increase in dementia patients in Egypt and will affect priorities of health care needs as well. The Egyptian society may need adequate preparation with regards to health insurance, accommodation and care homes for the upcoming ageing population (El-Katatney, 2009). Although the number of care home increased from 29 in 1986 to be around 140 home in 2009; it cannot serve more than 4000 elderly from a total of 5 million. Not every elderly will need a care home but the total numbers of homes around Egypt are serving less than 1% of the elderly population. These facts created a new situation of needs for care homes besides the older people who are requiring non-hospital health care facility for assisted living. The Egyptian traditions used to be strongly associated with the culture of extended family and caring for elderly as a family responsibility. Yet, in recent years changes of the economic conditions and factors as internal and external immigration may have affected negatively on elderly care within family boundaries. There is still the stigma of sending elderly to care homes. Some perceive it as a sign of intolerance of siblings towards their elderly parents but it is generally more accepted nowadays. Therefore, the need for care homes become a demand at this time in Egypt as a replacement of the traditional extended family when many older people nowadays either do not have the choice or the facilities to continue living with their families (El-Katatney 2009). Many families among the Egyptian society seem to have turned from holding back from the idea of transferring to a care home to gradual acceptance since elderly care homes are becoming more accepted than the past and constitutes a new concept of elderly care. Currently, many are thinking to run away from a lonely empty home in search of human company or respite care but numbers of geriatric homes are extremely lower than required and much more are still needed (Abdennour, 2010). Thus, it seems that more care homes may be needed in Egypt. Dementia patients are usually over 65, this is one of the factors that put them at high risk of exposure to different physical conditions related to frailty, old age, and altered cognitive functions. Additionally, around 50% of people with dementia suffers from other comorbidities which affect their health and increases hospital admissions (National Audit Office 2007). Therefore, it is expected that the possibility of doctors and nurses needing to provide care for dementia patients in various care settings is increasing (RCN 2010). Considering previous facts, we have an urgent need in Egypt to start awareness about normal and upnormal ageing and what is the meaning of dementia. Moreover, change of health policies and development of health services is required to be developed to match community needs. Another challenge is the very low number of psychiatric doctors and facilities since the current state of mental health can summarised as; one psychiatrist for every 67000 citizens and one psychiatric hospital bed for every 7000 citizens (Okasha, 2001). Finally the need to develop gerontologically informed assessment tools for dementia screening to be applied particularly in general hospitals (Armstrong and Mitchell 2008) would be very helpful for detecting dementia patients and develop better communication and planning of care for elderly. References: El Katateny, E. 2009. Same old, same old: In 2050, a fifth of Egyptians will be age 60 and older. How will the country accommodate its aging population?. Online available at: http://etharelkatatney.wordpress.com/category/egypt-today/page/3/ Fakhr-El Islam, M. 2008. Arab culture and mental health care. Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 45, pp. 671-682 Ageing and care of the elderly. Conference of European churches. 2007. [online] available at: http://csc.ceceurope.org/fileadmin/filer/csc/Ethics_Biotechnology/AgeingandCareElderly.pdf World Health Organization. 2012 a. Ageing and life course: ageing Publications. [Online] available at : http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/en/ World Health Organization. 2012 b. Ageing and life course: interesting facts about ageing. [Online] available at: http://www.who.int/ageing/about/facts/en/index.html World Health Organization 2012 c. Dementia a public health priority. [online] available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241564458_eng.pdf World Health Organization. 2012 d. Why focus on ageing and health, now?. Department of Health. 2009. Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy. [Online] available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_094058 Andrawes, G., O’Brien, L. and Wilkes, L. 2007. Mental illness and Egyptian families. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, vol.16, pp. 178-187 National Audit Office. 2007. Improving service and support for people with dementia. London. [online[ Available at: http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/0607/support_for_people_with_dement.aspx Armstrong, J and Mitchell, E. 2008. Comprehensive nursing assessment in the care of older people. Nursing Older People, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 36-40. Okasha, A. 2001. Egyptian contribution to the concept of mental health. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal,Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 377-380. Woods, R., Bruce, E., Edwards, R., Hounsome, B., Keady, J., Moniz-Cook, E., Orrell, M. and Tussell, I. 2009. Reminiscence groups for people with dementia and their family carers: pragmatic eight-centre randomised trial of joint reminiscence and maintenance versus usual treatment: a protocol. Trials Journal: open access, Vol. 10, [online] available at: http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/10/1/64 Grossberg, G. and Kamat, S. 2011. Alzheimer’s: the latest assessment and treatment strategies. Jones and Bartlett, publisher: The United States of America. Alzheimer’s Association. 2009. 2009 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, Volume 5, Issue 3. [online] Available at: http://www.alz.org/news_and_events_2009_facts_figures.asp Royal College of Nursing. 2010. Improving quality of care for people with dementia in general hospitals. London. National Audit Office. 2007. Improving service and support for people with dementia. London. [online[ Available at: http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/0607/support_for_people_with_dement.aspx Authors: Miss Amira El Baqary, Nursing Clinical instructor, The British University in Egypt firstname.lastname@example.org Dr Emad Sidhom, MBBCh, ABPsych-Specialist in Old Age Psychiatry-Behman Hospital email@example.com
Amira El Baqary
over 6 years ago
In NeuroPsychiatry it might be difficult to locate its territory, and find its niche. This might be an uneasy endeavour as its two parent branches neurology and psychiatry are still viable, also it siblings organic psychiatry, behavioural neurology and biological psychiatry are also present. This blogpost attempts to search for the definition and domains of neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatry can be defined as the 'biologic face' of mental health (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Neuropsychiatry unit). It is the neurological aspects of psychiatry and the psychiatric aspects of neurology (Pacific Neurpsychiatry Institute). It is not a new term. Many physicians used to brand themselves as neuropsychiatrists at the rise of the twentieth century. It has been looked upon with a sense of unease as a hybrid branch. Also, it was subject to pejorative connotations, as the provenance of amateurs in both parent disciplines (Lishman, 1987). The foundational claim is that 'all' mental disorders are disorders of the brain' (Berrios and Marková, 2002). The American NeuroPsychiatric Association (ANPA) defines it as 'the integrated study of psychiatric and neurologic disorders' (ANPA, 2013). The overlap between neuropsychiatry and biological psychiatry was observed (Trimble and George, 2010) as the domain of enquiry of the first and the approach of the second will meet at point. Berrios and Marková seemed to have focused on the degree of conversion among biological psychiatry, organic psychiatry, neuropsychiatry and behavioural neurology. They stated that they share the same foundational claims (FCcs): (1) mental disorder is a disorder of the brain; (2) reasons are not good enough as causes of mental disorder; and (3) biological psychiatry and its congeners have the patrimony of scientific truth. They further elaborated that the difference is primarily due to difference in historic origins. (D'haenen et al., 2002). The American Neuropsychiatric Association (ANPA) defines neuropsychiatry as the integrative study of neurological and psychiatric disorders on a clinical level, on a theoretical level; ANPA defines it as the bridge between neuroscience and clinical practice. The interrelation between both specialities is adopted by The Royal Australia and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists as it defines it as a psychiatric subspeciality. This seems to resonate the concept that 'biologisation' of psychiatry is inevitable (Sachdev and Mohan, 2013). The definition according to Gale Encyclopedia encompasses the interface between the two disciplines (Fundukian and Wilson, 2008). In order to acknowledge the wide use of the term 'neuropsychiatry'; the fourth edition of Lishman's Organic Psychiatry, appeared and it was renamed as 'textbook of neuropsychiatry'. The editor stated that the term is not used in its more restrictive sense (David, 2009). Ostow backtracked the origin of biological causes for illness to humoral view of temperament.In the nineteenth century, the differentiation between both did not seem to be apparent. The schism seems to have emerged in the twentieth century. The difficulties that arose with such early adoption of neuronal basis to psychiatric disorders are that they were based on on unsubstantiated beliefs and wild logic rather than scientific substance. (Panksepp, 2004). Folstein stated that Freud and Charcot postulated psychological and social roots for abnormal behaviours, thus differentiating neurology from psychiatry. (David, 2009). The separation may have lead to alienation of doctors on both camps and helped in creating an arbitary division in their scope of knowledge and skills. The re-emergence of interest in neurospsychiatry has been described to be due to the growing sense of discomfort in the lack of acknowledgment of brain disorders when considering psychiatric symptoms (Arciniegas and Beresford, 2001). There is considerable blurring regarding defining the territory and the boundaries of neuropsychiatry. The Royal College of Psychiatrists founded section of Neuropsychiatry in 2008. The major working groups include epilepsy, sleep disorders, brain injury and complex neurodisability. In 1987 the British NeuroPsychiatry Association was established, to address the professional need for distinction, without adopting the concept of formal affiliation with parent disciplinary bodies as the Royal College of Psychiatrists. The ANPA was founded in 1988. It issued training guide for residents. The guide included neurological and psychiatric assessments, interpretation of EEG and brain imaging techniques. With regards to the territory, it included delirium, dementia, psychosis, mood and anxiety disorders due to general medical condition. Neurpsychiatric aspects of psychopharmacologic treatments, epilepsy, neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury and stroke. The diagnosis of movement disorders, neurobehavioural disorders, demyelinating disease, intellectual and developmental disorders, as well as sleep disorders was also included. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) was established in Buenos Aires in 1974 to address the rising significance of biological psychiatry and to join local national societies together. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), is currently working on a biologically-based diagnosis, that incorporates neural circuits, cells, molecules to behavioural changes. The diagnostic system - named 'Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - is agnostic to current classification systems DSM-5 & ICD-10. Especially that the current diagnostic classficiations are mostly based on descriptive rather than neurobiological aetiological basis. (Insel et al., 2010). For example, the ICD-10 F-Code designates the first block to Organic illness, however, it seems to stop short of localisation of the cause of illness apart from the common prefix organic. It also addresses adverse drug events as tardive dyskinesia but stops short of describing it neural correlates. Also, psychosocial roots of mental illness seem to be apparent in aetiologically-based diagnoses as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, acute stress reaction, and adjustment disorders, the diagnostic cluster emphasise the necessity of having 'stress'. Other diagnoses seem to draw from the psychodynamic literature, e.g. conversion[dissociative] disorder. The need for neuropsychiatry, has been increasing as the advances in diagnostic imaging and laboratory investigations became more clinically relevant. Nowadays, there are tests as DaT-Scan that can tell the difference between neurocognitive disorder with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson's Disease. Vascular neurocognitive disorders warrant imaging as the rule rather than the exception, vascular depression has been addressed is a separate entity. Frontal Lobe Syndromes have been subdivided into orbitofrontal and dorsolateral (Moore,2008) Much training is needed to address this subspeciality. The early cases that may have stirred up the neurological roots of psychiatric disorders can be backdated to the case of Phineas Gage, and later, the case H.M. The eearlier fruits of adopting a neuropsychiatric perspective can be shown in the writings of Eliot Slater, as he attempted to search for the scientific underpinnings of psychiatry, and helped via seminal articles to highlight the organic aspect of psychiatry. Articles like 'The diagnosis of "Hysteria", where Slater, challenged the common wisdom of concepts like hysteria and conversion, rejecting the social roots of mental illness, and presenting a very strong case for the possibility of organicity, and actual cases of for which 'hysteria' was a plain misdiagnosis was way ahead of its time prior to CT Brain. Slater even challenged the mere existence of the concept of 'hysteria. (Slater, 1965) Within the same decade Alwyn Lishman published his textbook 'Organic Psychiatry' addressing the organic aspects of psychiatric disorders. Around the same time, the pioneers of social/psychological roots of mental illness became under attack. Hans Eysenck, published his book 'Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire'. Eysenck stated clearly that the case of Anna O. seems to have been mispresented and that she never had 'hysteria' and recovered she actually had 'tuberculous meningitis' and she died of its complications (Eysenck, 1986). To summarise, it seems difficult and may be futile to sharply delineate neurpsychiatry, biological psychiatry, organic psychiatry and behavioural neurology. However, it seems important to learn about the biological psychiatry as an approach and practice neuropsychiatry as a subspeciality. The territory is yet unclear from gross organic lesions as stroke to the potential of encompassing entire psychiatry as the arbitary distinction between 'functional' and 'organic' fades away. Perhaps practice will help to shape the domain of the speciality, and imaging will guide it. To date, the number of post-graduate studies are still low in comparison to the need for such speciality, much more board certification may be needed as well as the currently emerging masters and doctoral degrees. This post is previously posted on bmj doc2doc blogs Bibliography Eysenck, H.J., Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire, Pelican Series, 1986 German E Berrios, I.S.M., The concept of neuropsychiatry: A historical overview, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2002, Vol. 53, pp. 629-638 Kieran O’Driscoll, J.P.L., “No longer Gage”: an iron bar through the head, British Medical Journal, 1998, Vol. 317, pp. 1637-1638 Perminder S. Sachdev, A.M., Neuropsychiatry: Where Are We And Where Do We Go From Here?, Mens Sana Monographs, 2013, Vol. 11(1), pp. 4-15 Slater, E., The Diagnosis of "Hysteria", British Medical Journal, 1965, Vol. 5447(1), pp. 1395–1399 Thomas Insel, Bruce Cuthbert, R.H.M.G.K.Q.C.S.P.W., Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): Toward a New Classification Framework for Research on Mental Disorders, American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010, Vol. 167:7, pp. 748-751 Organic Psychiatry, Anthony S. David, Simon Fleminger, M. D. K. S. L. J. D. M. (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2009 Neuropsychiatry an introductory approach, Arciniegas & Beresford (ed.), Cambridge University Press, 2001 Biological Psychiatry, Hugo D’haenen, J.A. den Boer, P. W. (ed.), John Wiley and Sons, 2010 Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Laurie J. Fundukian, J. W. (ed.), Thomson Gale, 2008 Biological Psychiatry, M. Trimble, M. G. (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 Textbook of Neuropsychiatry, Moore, D. P. (ed.), Hodder Arnold, 2008 Textbook of Biological Psychiatry, Panksepp, J. (ed.), John Wiley and Sons, 2004 The American Neuropsychiatric Association Website www.anpaonline.org The Royal Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Unit Website http://www.neuropsychiatry.org.au/ The British Neuropsychiatry Association website www.bnpa.org.uk The Royal College of Psychiatrists website www.rcpsych.ac.uk The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry website www.wfsbp.org
Dr Emad Sidhom
about 6 years ago
Naked Scientists - 17th Jun 2014 - Untangling Alzheimer's Disease
about 6 years ago
Frieda Rozbruch was always a smart, capable, self-reliant woman. She survived the Holocaust, spoke seven languages and cooked up nine-course meals for th...
over 5 years ago
Epidemiology & societal impact, genetic and other risk factors, differential diagnosis of dementia assessment methods, agitation, treatment & management and references.
over 5 years ago
For decades, stroke and dementia were treated quite separately in the UK, both clinically and in research, despite both being diseases of the brain. Dementia – especially Alzheimer’s disease – had been claimed by the psychiatrists and neurologists, while stroke remained in general medicine or geriatrics. Today, scientists and doctors are becoming ever more aware…
about 5 years ago
Genetics and Dementia – what do relatives want to know? Candy Cooley NHS National Genetic Awareness Lead Genetics and genomics for healthcare www.geneticseduca…
over 6 years ago
Huntington’s disease – HD - (aka Huntington’s chorea, named after George Huntington ) is an autosomal dominant disorder that shows full penetrance. Treatment is supportive only Epidemiology and Aeitiology Approximately affects 5-10 per 100 000 individuals
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
The recent discovery of new neurological syndromes that result from neuronal infection with polyomavirus JC, also known as JC virus, and the presence of this virus in the grey matter are currently under debate.1 It has been suggested that JC virus is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, strokes, and brain tumours,2 and this hypothesis has been commented on in the BMJ.3
over 6 years ago