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Johann Friedrich Herbart - Biographies of geniuses

Herbart was born at Oldenburg. He was the only child of  the state councilor. Growing up as a fragile child because of an unfortunate accident, connected with falling into a vessel of very hot water,  Herbart was taught by his mother at home until the age of 12. His mother a gifted and strong-willed woman ,  had a tremendous influence in his upbringing by transmitting her mental power  to her son.  From 1788 to 1794  Herbart was a pupil in the Gymnasium at Oldenburg. Then he attended the University of Jena (1794-1799), where studying under Fichte and met Friedrich von Schiller.  During his studying he was influenced by Leibniz, Kant, and Fichte.Herbart worked as a tutor to the governor's three sons at Interlaken in Switzerland, from 1797 to 1800, during which period he made the acquaintance of Pestalozzi. Becoming a licentiate of the University of Göttingen in 1802, he was appointed extraordinary professor there in 1805. In the same year he gave his first philosophical lectures. Herbart taught philosophy and pedagogy at Göttingen (1805-1809). There he began to seek a sound philosophical base upon which to rest his educational theories.At the close of 1808 he became Kant’s successor as professor at Königsberg and from 1809 to 1833 held the chair of philosophy at Königsberg. Later dissatisfied with the way things were progressing in Prussia, Herbart returned to Göttingen in 1833. Не remained there as professor of philosophy till his death. He died on Aug. 11, 1841 and was buried in Albanifriedhof Cemetery in Göttingen.Zest: Herbart was very much focused on his studies and in spite of this, in 1811 he married an eighteen year old Mary Jane Drake, daughter of an English merchant. They lived a happy life with Mary supporting all of her husband’s pursuits and contributions to the fields of pedagogy and psychology.He developed theory of education—known as Herbartianism. It had a profound influence on late 19th-century teaching practices, especially in the United States, where educators established the National Herbart Society in 1895.In Germany, Leipzig and Jena became centers for Herbartianism.Herbart's method of instruction has been identified by his students as involving the 'Five Formal Steps of the Recitation', which includes preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application.Herbart gave psychology the beginning of a theory of inhibition, or interference in learning, which was to reappear in many guises and in theories in times to come extending from Pavlov's 'conditioned reflex' to Freud's 'repression.'Herbart long before Freud introduced the concept of 'unconscious'. He believed ideas crossed a limen of consciousness, or a boundary between the conscious and the unconscious.Сonsciousness consists  of three areas: clarity of mind, consciousness and unconsciousness. Moreover the terms transition ideas from the unconscious into consciousness are the power of the presentation and the number of links this view with the past experience (apperception).According to Herbart the soul has no innate natural talents or inborn powers. He said that the individuality of the youth  reveals itself more and more under the teacher's efforts. He called to make teaching a more interesting and attractive field said that the teacher must represent the future man in the boy. Herbart - German philosopher, psychologist, and educator. He is considered as  one of the outstanding philosophers, the pioneer of empirical psychology and  founder of pedagogy as an academic disciplinePhilosophy. He maintained that true being consists of a plurality of simple «reals», entities which were modeled after the Leibnizian monads. He held that change was nothing but changing relationships between independent real simple elements. Herbart replaces the term 'sensation' to the term 'presentation', thus emphasizing the internal world relatively isolated from the outside world. Presentations are not passive elements in the human soul, but have their own charge and  activity.He regarded mental life as the manifestation of elementary sensory units, idea  or “presentations”  (Vorstellungen). These he conceived as mental forces rather than as mere “ideas” in Locke’s sense. The study of their interactions gave rise to a statics and dynamics of the mind, to be expressed in mathematical formulas.Psychology. Herbart sought to develop the mathematical and empirical, as well as the metaphysical, aspects of psychology. However he denied the possibility of psychological experiment.His philosophy of mind generated a kind of associationist psychology.Herbart believed that the mind was the sum total of all ideas -“presentations”,  which entered into one's conscious life. By assimilation (or apperception) new ideas could enter the mind through association with similar ideas already present. He felt they grouped themselves into what he called 'apperceptive masses', which content is the individual human experience. He emphasized the importance of both the physical and the human environment in the development of the mind. On this basis Herbart developed a theory of education as a branch of applied psychology.Education. Herbart maintained that a science of education was possible, and he furthered the idea that education should be a subject for university study.He stressed the need for moral education through experience and brought the work of teaching into the area of conscious method. According to his theory of apperception, new ideas, when properly presented to the student, become linked to existing ideas and form a system of associated ideas called the apperceptive mass.Aesthetics. Herbart  stated that the beautiful is be carefully distinguished from the allied conceptions of the useful or the pleasant, which vary with time, place and person;  whereas beauty is predicated absolutely and involuntarily by all who have attained the right standpoint.Major works : Pestalozzis Idee eines A B C der Anschauung (1802), ABC's of Observation (1804), The Moral or Ethical Revelation of the World: The Chief Aim of Education (1804), General Pedagogics 1806), Chief Points of Logic (1806), Chief Points of Metaphysics (1806), General Practical Philosophy (1808),  System of Psychology (1814), Text-book of Psychology (1816), Psychology as a Science, (1824-5), Allgemeine Metaphysik (General Metaphysics, two-volume work ) (1828-29), Outline of Pedagogical Lectures (1835). The most complete, concise and accurate information about the life and achievements of geniuses, their creative style and the secret of their success. All information on the site is given both in English and Russian. Наиболее полная, сжатая и точная информация о жизни и достижениях гениев, об интересных фактах из их биографии, их творческом стиле и секретах успеха. Вся информация на сайте дана на русском и английском языках. The most complete, concise and accurate information about the life and achievements of geniuses, their creative style and the secret of their success. All information on the site is given both in English and Russian. Geniusrevive.com, Genius Гении, Знаменитости, Ученые, Деятели, Спортсмены, Служители духа, Деятели искусства, Genius, Votaries оf Spirit, Scientists, Art workers, Celebrities, Figures, Sports Personalities.  
geniusrevive.com
almost 4 years ago
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Notes from the Field: Acute Mercury Poisoning After Home Gold and Silver Smelting — Iowa, 2014

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Often called 'the Voice of CDC,' the MMWR series is the agency's primary vehicle for scientific publication of timely, reliable, authoritative, accurate, objective, and useful public health information and recommendations. MMWR readership predominately consists of physicians, nurses, public health practitioners, epidemiologists and other scientists, researchers, educators, and laboratorians.  
cdc.gov
almost 4 years ago
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Somatotype and constitutional psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Somatotype is a taxonomy developed in the 1940s, by American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, to categorise the human physique according to the relative contribution of three fundamental elements, somatotypes, named after the three germ layers of embryonic development: the endoderm, (develops into the digestive tract), the mesoderm, (becomes muscle, heart and blood vessels), and the ectoderm (forms the skin and nervous system).[1] His initial visual methodology has been discounted as subjective, but later formulaic variations of the methodology, developed by his original research assistant Barbara Heath, and later Lindsay Carter and Rob Rempel are still in academic use.[2][3][4]  
en.wikipedia.org
almost 4 years ago
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Iron Profile TIBC, Ferritin and Saturation

My notes on iron metabolism and diagnosis of diseases using iron profile.  
Sarosh Kamal
almost 4 years ago
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Pitfalls in Sample Size Calculation in Anaesthesia Journals

Sample size calculation is frequently reported in anaesthesia journals, but the details of basic elements for calculation are not consistently provided.  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago
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Management of lumbar spinal stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200 000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
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Management of lumbar spinal stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200 000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
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Assessing Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in MRI in the Wake of Safety Concerns CME

The goal of this activity is to provide a balanced overview of the clinical significance of reports of gadolinium remaining in the brains of patients who receive multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs).  
medscape.org
almost 4 years ago
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Folic Acid and Creatine to Lower Blood Arsenic

This study suggests that nutritional supplementation can present a low-risk and low-cost treatment option to limit arsenic toxicity in arsenic-exposed populations.  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago
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“Don’t wait to strike when the iron is hot….make it hot by striking…”

Source: “Don’t wait to strike when the iron is hot….make it hot by striking…”  
prehospitalmed.com
almost 4 years ago
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Gold Immunochromatographic Strips for Determining PSA

A new non-invasive technique using gold immunochromatographic strips may be a faster and lower-cost option for PSA testing.  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago
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NHS hits target on reducing carbon emissions

The NHS reduced its carbon emissions by 11% from 2007 to 2015, exceeding the 10% target set in 2009, although it is unlikely to meet long term goals on climate change if the pace of change does not improve.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
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Higher levels of mercury in brain are not linked to increased risk of Alzheimer’s, study finds

Eating seafood once a week or more is associated with higher levels of mercury in the brain, but these were not correlated with more brain neuropathology, a study in JAMA has found.1 In fact, the analysis of autopsied brains showed that moderate seafood consumption was correlated with less Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
Www.bmj
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Higher levels of mercury in brain are not linked to increased risk of Alzheimer’s, study finds

Eating seafood once a week or more is associated with higher levels of mercury in the brain, but these were not correlated with more brain neuropathology, a study in JAMA has found.1 In fact, the analysis of autopsied brains showed that moderate seafood consumption was correlated with less Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 4 years ago
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Seafood Linked to Less AD Pathology Despite Mercury

Moderate consumption of seafood increases mercury levels, but this wasn't associated with brain neuropathology, a new study suggests; rather, such consumption was linked to lower AD pathology.  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago
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Person-Centered Care: A Definition and Essential Elements

In this position statement, the American Geriatrics Society provides a definition of person-centered care, its essential elements, and barriers to implementation.  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago
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More Magnesium, More Benefit in Prediabetes?

Is supplemental magnesium beneficial for patients with prediabetes?  
medscape.com
almost 4 years ago