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Epidemiology

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome

This is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). It typically comes on several weeks after viral infection, usually, GI or URTI (also sometimes flu vaccine [controversial]). HIV is also known to be a cause. In up to 40% of cases, no precipitating factor can be found.   Epidemiology 1-2 per 100 000 In 40% of cases, no cause is found  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Huntington's Disease

Huntington’s disease – HD - (aka Huntington’s chorea, named after George Huntington [1872]) is an autosomal dominant disorder that shows full penetrance. Treatment is supportive only   Epidemiology and Aeitiology Approximately affects 5-10 per 100 000 individuals  
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over 5 years ago
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Subdural Haemorrhage

A haemorrhage between the arachnoid and dura mater. It can be acute, chronic, or acute on chronic. Most cases are chronic, and occur in the elderly after mild trauma (e.g. a fall). Usually a venous bleed.   Epidemiology and aetiology Elderly Hypertension Falls (e.g. in epilepsy and alcohol abuse) Anticoagulant therapy   Pathology Vast majority due to trauma, but sometimes can be caused by ↑ICP and brain mets.  
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over 5 years ago
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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is due to atherosclerosis of arteries in the limbs. The level of arterial occlusion present is proportional to the symptoms. The pathogenesis and risk factors are the same as for coronary artery disease (CAD), and include: Hypertension Dyslipidaemia High LDL and low LDL levels Diabetes Obesity FH of arterial disease Smoking Age Male gender   Epidemiology  
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over 5 years ago
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Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

This is the most common life-limiting inherited disease in Caucasians. It is caused by a genetic mutation that alters mucus production, resulting in a more viscous solution. It is autosomal recessive.   Life expectancy is improving. Newborns with CF have a life-expectancy of about 40 years. The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.   Epidemiology Most common in Caucasians, rare in other races.    
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over 5 years ago
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Fifth Disease

Fifth Disease - so called as it was the fifth of the six common childhood skin rashes when it was first classified back in the 18th and 19th centuries. Formally known as Erythema Infectiosum and also colloquially called slapped cheek syndrome. Aietiology and Epidemiology  Caused by infection with Parvovirus B19 (aka erythrovirus)    
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over 5 years ago
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Hirschsprung’s Disease

A congenital abnormality, whereby there is improper innervation of the large intestine, extending from the rectum, sometimes proximally into the colon. Epidemiology Male predominance   Aetiology 30% of cases have a FH Several genes have been identified, one of which is on the X chromosome, and thus may explain the male predominance.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Intussusception

This is a condition where-by one piece of bowel will ‘telescope’ inside another piece, resulting in obstruction, and sometimes ischaemia. Usually it is a piece of proximal bowel passing inside a more distal piece Most commonly, the distal ileum passing through the ielocaecal valve into the colon Requires urgent treatment   Epidemiology and aetiology Usually occurs between 3 months and 3 years  
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over 5 years ago
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Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy

This is a severe form of muscular dystrophy, and most boys do not survive past adolescence. It is an X-linked recessive condition. Typically affects skeletal muscles initially, but may later go on to affect the heart, and sometimes diaphragm.   Epidemiology Affects 1 in 3500 male boys The most common muscular dystrophy   Pathology    
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over 5 years ago
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Klinefelter's Syndrome (47,XXY)

This is the presence of an extra X chromosome in males to give (47,XXY).    Epidemiology 1 in 1000 male live births   Clinical features Usually diagnosed in childhood when there is: Clumsyness Learning difficulties (usually mild) Typically intellectual ability is reduced y 10-20 IQ points, but still within the normal range. More susceptible to behavioural and psychological problems.  
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over 5 years ago
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Summary of Congenital Cardiac Abnormalities

Cardiac abnormalities in children are predominantly congenital. Cardiac abnormalities are the largest group of congenital defects   Epidemiology 8 per 1000 children have a significant congenital cardiac abnormality 1 in 10 still births have a cardiac abnormality 10-15% of cases have more than one abnormality  
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over 5 years ago
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Whooping Cough

Whooping Cough (aka Pertussis) This is a type of bronchiolitis, caused by the bacterium Bordetella Pertussis. It is highly infectious, and can be deadly. It causes roughly around 300 000 deaths worldwide each year, although in the UK deaths are rare. Other LRTI’s are more dealy   Epidemiology and Aetiology Endemic in the worldwide population  
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over 5 years ago
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Anxiety and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Epidemiology Very common. Prevalence: Men – 2-4% Women 3-4.5% Accounts for 1/3 of all psychiatric diagnosis Accounts for 10% of all GP consultations Closely related to depression – and many patients move between the two states. Often patients satisfy the criteria for both anxiety and depression  
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over 5 years ago
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Fear Disordes - Panic, Phobia and PTSD

Fear disorders; Panic, Phobia and PTSD It is often hard to distinguish what is ‘normal’ fear, and what classifies as a psychiatric diagnosis. In practice, often these patients have symptoms of anxiety and fear, and diagnosis from GAD may be difficult.   Epidemiology Affect 3% of men and 6% of women Long duration   Aetiology  
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over 5 years ago
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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia and the Delusional Disorders Under this classification are the ‘serious brain disorders’ that are neither organic brain disorders or severe mood disorders. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition, but has a widely varying course. Some people make a full recovery, whilst other may require institutionalised care for their whole lives.   Epidemiology    
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over 5 years ago
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Giardiasis

Organism Giardia lamblia Flagellate protozoan – lives in duodenum or jejunum. Incubation= 7days-3months   Transmission Faecal-oral/ from pets or birds (humans are main reservoir of infection)   Typically from drinking water contaminated with giardia cysts (killed by boiling but NOT chlorination)   Epidemiology Prevalence approx. 20-30% in developing countries  
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over 5 years ago
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Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), formerly known as testicular feminization, is an X-linked recessive condition resulting in a failure of normal masculinization of the external genitalia in chromosomally male individuals. This failure of virilization can be either complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or partial androgen insens...  
emedicine.medscape.com
over 5 years ago
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Exposing the Hidden Curriculum Influencing Medical Education... : Academic Medicine

The disparity in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia and New Zea  
journals.lww.com
over 5 years ago
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Tonsillitis

Epidemiology and Aetiology 70% viral 30% bacterial 90% will recover within a week without treatment Common in children age 5-10 and young adults age 15-25 Caused by Group A streptococcus. This is carried in normal healthy throats in the general population. Rates of carriage decline with age, from about 10% of under 14’s to  
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over 5 years ago
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What is a crossover trial?

Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of the cannabinoid dronabinol on central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.[1] The effectiveness of cannabinoids in relieving pain caused by central lesions in multiple sclerosis had not been investigated previously. A randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial study design was used. The intervention was orally administered dronabinol at a maximum dose of 10 mg daily or corresponding placebo. Each treatment period was for three weeks, separated by a three week washout period. All analgesic drugs, except for paracetamol, were discontinued at least one week before the start of the trial.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago