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Foo20151013 2023 w5wmg1?1444774074
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Exam Survival Guide

1. Sleep (I realize I’m posting this at 12:30 am…) (http://www.helpguide.org/life/sleep_tips.htm) I know there’s a popular perception of sleep deprivation going hand in hand with working hard or succeeding academically. However, that is only true if you’re working very last minute, and don’t care about retaining the information–you basically just want to get through your upcoming test/assignment. I would like to clarify that, although learning about 10 months of material in 2 weeks is overwhelming, it is NOT last minute because whatever you’re working on right now, you’ll have to remember in 2 weeks for your exam. Besides the exam, if you’re studying medicine, you need to remember most of these things for the rest of your life. In order to retain that information, you need to stay alert, well rested and motivated. Prolonged sleep deprivation can make you feel very ‘CBA’ very fast. 2. Stay Energized Sleep is only one factor in staying motivated and alert; another is staying energized¬–in a healthy way. Simply put: if you feel well, you’ll work well. Eat well: difficult, I know, when you’ve got so little time to spare; but as much as you can, try to eat more whole foods (aka things that don’t come in wrappers or have their own commercial) and keep a balanced diet (too much of anything is usually not good). Everyone snacks while they’re doing exams, but try to find a vice that won’t put you in a sugar coma (some good examples include berries and other fruits, nuts, carrots with hummus to dip in, granola bars, etc). Note: drinking tea is also an excellent way to stay energized! Stay active: Again, I know something like this is difficult to keep up in normal everyday life, let alone during exam stress. Even if it is just for 15-20 minutes, some cardio (note: the more strenuous the workout in a short period of time, the more benefit you’ll get) is a fantastic ‘eye-opener’ (I learned that phrase while learning how to take an alcohol history and now I really like it)! No one wants to go for a run in the morning, but after you get past the first 2-3 minutes of wanting to collapse, your body starts to feel really grateful. This is the BEST way to stimulate your senses and wake yourself up. I promise it’s better than any energy drink or cup of coffee you could have. Take small breaks: SMALL breaks!!! About 10 minutes. Every once in a while, you need to get up and walk around to give yourself a break, have some fresh air, grab a snack, but try not to get carried away; try to avoid having a short attention span. 3. Make Lists I cannot stress enough how counterproductive it is to overwhelm yourself with the amount of work you have. Whether you think about it or not, that pile is not going anywhere. Thinking about it won’t wish it away. Stop psyching yourself out and just get on with it– step by step. Making a list of objectives you need to accomplish that day or week is a great way to start; then, cross them out as you go along (such a satisfying feeling). Being able to visualize your progress will be a great motivator. Remember: it is important to be systematic with your studying approach; if you jump around between modules because they’re boring you’re just going to confuse yourself and make it hard to remember things when that exam comes Note: I have a white board in my room where I write my objectives for the week. Some days it motivates, some days it I want to throw it out the window (but I can't reach the latch)… 4. Practice Questions Practice questions are excellent for monitoring your progress; they’re also excellent at scaring you. Do not fear! This is a good thing, because now you know what you’re missing, go back and read up on what you forgot to take a look at, and come back and do the questions later. Then give yourself a sticker for getting it right ? Practice questions are also great for last minute studying too because they can help you do what I call “backwards studying”–which is what I just described: figuring out what you need to learn based on what the questions look like. 5. Be realistic Set realistic goals for yourself; most importantly, set realistic daily goals for yourself so that when you get all or most or even some of them done you can go to sleep with a level of satisfaction. Also, you need to pick your battles. Example: if you suck at neuro, then one module’s loss is another’s gain. Don’t spend too much time trying to get through one thing, just keep moving forward, and come back to it later 6. ‘Do not disturb’ Facebook, twitter, instagram, youtube, whatsapp, texting, pinterest, meme websites, so many fantastic ways to kill your time… Do yourself a favor, save them for your breaks. If someone is dying or on fire, they will most likely call you, not text you or write on your wall; you do not need to check your phone that often unless you're expecting something time sensitive. 7.Don’t Compare Everyone studying in your program is going to be stressed about things; do NOT let it rub off on you. You know those moments when you hear a peer or a prof/tutor describing something you have never even heard of, then you start panicking? Yeah, don’t do that. It happens to everyone. Instead of worrying so much, just go read about it! Simple solution right? What else are you going to do? Plus, a lot of the time other students seem to know more than they need to about certain things (which I can tell you right now, doesn’t always mean they’re doing better than you; knowing random, very specific factoids doesn’t mean they can bring it in clinic. Everyone can pull a Hermione and know a book inside out, but this is not necessarily the hallmark of a good doctor), what’s it to you? Worry about yourself, be confident in your abilities, and don’t trouble yourself with comparing to other people 8.Practice for Practicals Everyone is afraid of practical exams, like the OSCE (at any rest station you're likely to find me with my head in my hands trying to stabilize my breathing pattern and trying not to cry). The best way to be ready is to practice and practice and practice and practice. It’s like learning to drive a car. At first you’re too aware of your foot on the gas, the position of your hand on the wheel, etc; but, after driving for a little while, these things become subconscious. In the same way, when you walk into a station, you could be so worried about how you’ll do your introduction and gain consent, and remembering to wash your hands, and getting equipment and and and and and; the anxiety affects your confidence and your competence. If you practice enough, then no matter what they throw at you, you will get most of the points because the process will be second nature to you. Practice on your roommates, friends, family members, patients with a doctor's help...when appropriate... Even your stuffed animals if you're really desperate. DO NOT leave practicing for these practicals to the last minute; and if you do, make sure you go through every thing over and over again until you’re explaining examinations in your sleep. NOTE: When I'm practicing for OSCE alone, I record myself over and over again and play it back to myself and criticize it, and then practice againn. 9.Consistency You don’t necessarily have to study in the same place every day; however, it is always good to have some level of routine. Some examples include: waking up/sleeping at the same time everyday, going for a run at the same time every day, having the same study routine, etc. Repetition is a good way to keep your brain focused on new activities because, like I said before, the more you repeat things, the more they become second nature to you. Hope these tips are of some use to you; if not, feel free to sound off in the comments some alternate ways to get through exams. Remember that while exams are stressful, this is the time where you build your character and find out what you’re truly capable of. When you drop your pen after that final exam, you want to feel satisfied and relieved, not regretful. Happy Studying ?  
Mary
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 195tfw5?1444774110
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A 21st Century Map of the Brain

Can you imagine being able to search for locations in the human body in the same way you can on Google Maps? This thinking lead Programmer Rich Stoner to create this amazing video of a 21st Century Map of the Brain which was our most popular tweet last week. A 21st Century Map of the Brain http://t.co/tkojzJBW55 via @brianglanz #openscience— Meducation (@Meducation) October 18, 2013 Rich writes in his blog - “Now we can quickly search Google Maps for a location, ask what is nearby, and even see what it looks like using StreetView. Now, imagine if something like that existed for the human brain: an interactive environment to search, visualize, and explore layers upon layers of neuroanatomy. This is the dream of cortical cartographers (also known as neuroanatomists). 10 years ago, one of the largest brain mapping initiatives was founded by Paul Allen with a single goal: to build a 21st Century Map of the Brain.” Click here to read more. The mapping of the brain is a working progress and therefore not 100% accurate. Even so the video gives us an insight into the innovate ways we will be able to interact with science in the future. You can follow Meducation on twitter to see more tweets like this at twitter.com/meducation.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 e2a8vo?1444774258
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Monkey See, Monkey Do.

So you're sitting in a bus when you see a baby smile sunnily and gurgle at his mother. Your automatic response? You smile too. You're jogging in the park, when you see a guy trip over his shoelaces and fall while running. Your knee jerk reaction? You wince. Even though you're completely fine and unscathed yourself. Or, to give a more dramatic example; you're watching Titanic for the umpteenth time and as you witness Jack and Rose's final moments together, you automatically reach for a tissue and wipe your tears in whole hearted sympathy ( and maybe blow your nose loudly, if you're an unattractive crier like yours truly). And here the question arises- why? Why do we experience the above mentioned responses to situations that have nothing to do with us directly? As mere passive observers, what makes us respond at gut level to someone else's happiness or pain, delight or excitement, disgust or fear? In other words, where is this instinctive response to other people's feelings and actions that we call empathy coming from? Science believes it may have discovered the answer- mirror neurons. In the early 1990s, a group of scientists (I won't bore you with the details of who, when and where) were performing experiments on a bunch of macaque monkeys, using electrodes attached to their brains. Quite by accident, it was discovered that when the monkey saw a scientist holding up a peanut, it fired off the same motor neurons in its brain that would fire when the monkey held up a peanut itself. And that wasn't all. Interestingly, they also found that these motor neurons were very specific in their actions. A mirror neuron that fired when the monkey grasped a peanut would also fire only when the experimenter grasped a peanut, while a neuron that fired when the monkey put a peanut in its mouth would also fire only when the experimenter put a peanut in his own mouth. These motor neurons came to be dubbed as 'mirror neurons'. It was a small leap from monkeys to humans. And with the discovery of a similar, if not identical mirror neuron system in humans, the studies, hypotheses and theories continue to build. The strange thing is that mirror neurons seem specially designed to respond to actions with clear goals- whether these actions reach us through sight, sound, smell etc, it doesn't matter. A quick example- the same mirror neurons will fire when we hop on one leg, see someone hopping, hear someone hopping or hear or read the word 'hop'. But they will NOT respond to meaningless gestures, random or pointless sounds etc. Instead they may well be understanding the intentions behind the related action. This has led to a very important hypothesis- the 'action understanding' ability of mirror neurons. Before the discovery of mirror neurons, scientists believed our ability to understand each other, to interpret and respond to another's feeling or actions was the result of a logical thought process and deduction. However, if this 'action understanding' hypothesis is proved right, then it would mean that we respond to each other by feeling, instead of thinking. For instance, if someone smiles at you, it automatically fires up your mirror neurons for smiling. They 'understand the action' and induce the same sensation within you that is associated with smiling. You don't have to think about what the other person intends by this gesture. Your smile flows thoughtlessly and effortlessly in return. Which brings us to yet another important curve- if mirror neurons are helping us to decode facial expressions and actions, then it stands to reason that those gifted people who are better at such complex social interpretations must be having a more active mirror neuron system.(Imagine your mom's strained smile coupled with the glint in her eye after you've just thrown a temper tantrum in front of a roomful of people...it promises dire retribution my friends. Trust me.) Then does this mean that people suffering from disorders such as autism (where social interactions are difficult) have a dysfunctional or less than perfect mirror neuron system in some way? Some scientists believe it to be so. They call it the 'broken mirror hypothesis', where they claim that malfunctioning mirror neurons may be responsible for an autistic individual's inability to understand the intention behind other people's gestures or expressions. Such people may be able to correctly identify an emotion on someone's face, but they wouldn't understand it's significance. From observing other people, they don't know what it feels like to be sad, angry, surprised or scared. However, the jury is still out on this one folks. The broken mirror hypothesis has been questioned by others who are still skeptical about the very existence of these wonder neurons, or just how it is that these neurons alone suffered such a developmental hit when the rest of the autistic brain is working just dandy? Other scientists argue that while mirror neurons may help your brain to understand a concept, they may not necessarily ENCODE that concept. For instance, babies understand the meaning behind many actions without having the motor ability to perform them. If this is true, then an autistic person's mirror neurons are perfectly fine...they were just never responsible for his lack of empathy in the first place. Slightly confused? Curious to find out more about these wunderkinds of the human brain? Join the club. Whether you're an passionate believer in these little fellas with their seemingly magical properties or still skeptical, let me add to your growing interest with one parting shot- since imitation appears to be the primary function of mirror neurons, they might well be partly responsible for our cultural evolution! How, you ask? Well, since culture is passed down from one generation to another through sharing, observation followed by imitation, these neurons are at the forefront of our lifelong learning from those around us. Research has found that mirror neurons kick in at birth, with infants just a few minutes old sticking their tongues out at adults doing the same thing. So do these mirror neurons embody our humanity? Are they responsible for our ability to put ourselves in another person's shoes, to empathize and communicate our fellow human beings? That has yet to be determined. But after decades of research, one thing is for sure-these strange cells haven't yet ceased to amaze and we definitely haven't seen the last of them. To quote Alice in Wonderland, the tale keeps getting "curiouser and curiouser"!  
Huda Qadir
over 5 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 4k257s?1444774255
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A Review of My Psychiatry Rotation

This field of medicine requires much more physiological and pathophysiological knowledge than most people give it credit for. Psychiatric illness DO have physical manifestations of symptoms; in fact those symptoms help form the main criteria for differential diagnoses. For example, key physical symptoms of depression, besides having a low mood for more than two weeks (yes, two weeks is all it takes to be classified as 'depressed'), include fatigue, change in appetite, unexplained aches/pains, changes in menstrual cycle if you're a female, altered bowel habits, abnormal sleep, etc. Aside from this, studies suggest that psychiatric illnesses put you at higher risk for physical conditions including heart disease, osteoarthritis, etc. (the list really does go on) Although some mental health conditions, like cognitive impairments, still do not have very effective treatment options; most psychiatric medications work very well, and are necessary for treating the patient. The stigma surrounding them by the public causes a huge problem for doctors. Many patients are reluctant to comply with medications because they are not as widely accepted as the ones for non-mental health conditions. A psychiatrist holds a huge responsibility for patient education. It can be tough to teach your patients about their medication, when many of them refuse to belief there is anything wrong with them (this is also because of stigma). Contrary to my previous beliefs, psychiatrists DO NOT sit around talking about feelings all day. The stereotypical image of someone lying down on a couch talking about their thoughts/feelings while the doctor holds up ink blots, is done more in 'cognitive behavioural therapy.' While this is a vital healthcare service, it's not really what a psychiatrist does. Taking a psychiatric history is just like taking a regular, structured medical history; except you have to ask further questions about their personal history (their relationships, professional life, significant life events, etc), forensic history, substance misuse history (if applicable), and childhood/developmental history. Taking a psychiatric history for a new patient usually takes at least an hour. The interesting thing about about treating a psychiatric patient is that the best guidelines you have for making them healthy is their personality before the symptoms started (this is called 'pre-morbid personality'). This can be difficult to establish, and can often be an ambiguous goal for a doctor to reach. Of course, there is structure/protocol for each illness, but each patient will be unique. This is a challenge because personalities constantly evolve, healthy or not, and the human mind is perpetual. On top of this, whether mental or physical, a serious illness usually significally impacts a person's personality. Most psychiatric conditions, while being very treatable, will affect the patient will struggle with for their whole life. This leaves the psychiatrist with a large portion of the responsibility for the patient's quality of life and well-being; this can be vey rewarding and challenging. The state of a person's mind is a perpetual thing, choosing the right medication is not enough. Before I had done this rotation, I was quite sure that this was a field I was not interested in. I still don't know if it is something I would pursue, but I'm definitely more open-minded to it now! PS: It has also taught me some valuable life lessons; most of the patients I met were just ordinary people who were pushed a little too far by the unfortunate combination/sequence of circumstances in their life. Even the ones who have committed crimes or were capable of doing awful things.. It could happen to anyone, and just because I have been lucky enough to not experience the things those people have, does not mean I am a better person for not behaving the same way as them.  
Mary
over 5 years ago
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107

Basic Hemodynamic Principles Viewed Through Pressure Volume Relations

The goal of this webinar is to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of preload, afterload, contractility and lusitropy.  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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4
403

Early Goal Directed Therapy in Sepsis

This video was created to help medical students (and anyone else) solidify their knowledge in Emergency Medicine.  
YouTube
over 4 years ago
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430

A Chip That Mimics Human Organs Is the Design of the Year

The chip's ultimate goal is to lessen dependence on animal test subjects and decrease time and cost for developing drugs.   
wired.com
about 4 years ago
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2
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New Health Practitioner Teacher Education Masters Degree: The First Year Outcomes

This professional degree program began officially September 2008. Curriculum designed based on BEME faculty development principles to be flexible, distance accessible with a five year part-time option. The goal is to support learners in achieving competence in all aspects of teaching, program design, evaluation, administration and educational technology. Activities feature small group, collaborative, and cooperative case-based learning. There is no thesis required; the emphasis is on practicum based reflective service learning.  
Helen Batty
almost 10 years ago
Preview 300x413
2
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New Health Professions Teacher Education Masters Degree: The First Year Outcomes

This professional degree program began officially September 2008. Curriculum designed based on BEME faculty development principles to be flexible, distance accessible with a five year part-time option. The goal is to support learners in achieving competence in all aspects of teaching, program design, evaluation, administration and educational technology. Activities feature small group, collaborative, and cooperative case-based learning. There is no thesis required; the emphasis is on practicum based reflective service learning.  
Helen Batty
almost 10 years ago
Www.bmj
2
72

Guidelines, polypharmacy, and drug-drug interactions in patients with multimorbidity

Polypharmacy, defined as the chronic co-prescription of several drugs, is often the consequence of the application of disease specific guidelines, targeting disease specific goals, to patients with multiple chronic diseases. One common consequence of polypharmacy is the high rate of adverse drug reactions, mainly from drug-drug interactions (the ability of a drug to modify the action or effect of another drug administered successively or simultaneously).1 The risk of a drug-drug interaction in any particular patient increases with the number of co-existing diseases and the number of drugs prescribed.2  
bmj.com
over 4 years ago
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A Humble NHS?

A Recap Last week in my personal blog I reflected on humility as defined by James Ryle: God given self-assurance that eliminates the need to prove to others the worth of who you are and the rightness of what you do. Ryle suggests, from 1 Peter 5:5-7, that central to humbling ourselves is throwing our cares on to God. Every concern, care and fear being hurled on to God who is faithful and powerful enough to handle them. When we know that we are loved by Him no matter what and that He is in control no matter what, then we remove the need to prove ourselves or protect ourselves. We become humble – secure enough to allow God to be in control and to serve others. Once our eyes are lifted from ourselves we are able to see others to love and serve them. Stafford Hospital Just before writing the last post I was reading an article about the report by Robert Francis QC on the appalling treatment of patients at Stafford Hospital. One of the recurring comments made by many different people is that the pressure of targets and incentives increasingly displaces focus on compassion and patient care. When doctors, nurses and managers alike are bombarded with ever increasing and regularly changes hoops to jump through and targets to meet, no wonder their attention and efforts are dragged from patient care. I’ve seen something of the effects of this in a family member who for many years worked as a Health Visitor. In their decades of service they saw an ever increasing and ever changing string of targets and goals alongside cost cutting moves that stripped resources and personnel. Their desire to be compassionate and offer the best care possible became more and more stressful until it finally proved too much. She recently changed jobs. Now I’m not trying to attack the NHS and I am well aware that so many people receive great care. But this is not a new concern that is being bandied around with fresh vigour in the light of Stafford Hospital. What struck me is that it demonstrates on an institutional level what also seems true at a personal level. Namely, that when we are forced to operate from a place of insecurity we begin to miss the most important things. NHS services have to meet targets to receive funding to simply keep operating – there will be no patient care if there is no hospital. Oftentimes, especially as a leader, we can live with a sense that, unless we meet expectations or make people like us or recognise our worth, then we’ll have no influence to do any of the things we know we are called to do. The secret of personal humility is to recognise that we are already loved by our Father before we even move our finger; to recognise that He is control and we can throw every care on Him. A person who can live from that place of security finds, free from the need to prove themselves or their actions, can begin to simply do what they are made and called to do. They are no longer pulled in different directions by a multiplicity of cares. What about an institution? It strikes me that a similar solution is needed for the NHS. Is there a way to give security for doctors, nurses and caring professionals so that they are able to do what they are called to do without constantly watching their back? Obviously there is a need for accountability for the safety of patients and to ensure a good standard of care, but the constant need to prove worth and achievement cannot be helpful for those who are called to compassionate care. I’m not a healthcare professional. I don’t know exactly what this would look like. But I recognise in the diagnosis of struggles in the NHS, God’s diagnosis of struggles in many people’s lives. The way He designed us to live with Him is often a good basis to begin to imagine a new way for every level of society to function. So, my question is this: what would a humble NHS look like? To whom could a National Health Service throw it’s concerns and cares?  
Rev Samuel Pollard
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1f9109k?1444774063
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2536

Criticizing the NHS - Can students do this productively?

In this month’s SBMJ (May 2013) a GP called Dr Michael Ingram has written a very good article highlighting some of the problems with the modern NHS’s administrative systems, especially relating to the huge amount of GP time wasted on following up after administrative errors and failings. I personally think that it is important for people working within the NHS to write articles like this because without them then many of us would be unaware of these problems or would feel less confident in voicing our own similar thoughts. The NHS is a fantastic idea and does provide an excellent service compared to many other health care systems around the world, but there is always room for improvement – especially on the administrative side! The issues raised by Dr Ingram were: Histology specimens being analysed but reports not being sent to the GP on time or with the correct information. Histology reports not being discussed with patient’s directly when they try and contact the hospital to find out the results and instead being referred to their GP, who experiences the problem stated above. GP’s are being left to deal with patient’s problems that have nothing to do with the GP and their job and have everything to do with an inefficient NHS bureaucracy. These problems and complaints often taking up to a third of a GP’s working day and thereby reducing the time they can spend actually treating patients. Having to arrange new outpatient appointments for patients when their appointment letters went missing or when appointments were never made etc. Even getting outpatient appointments in the first place and how these are often delayed well after the recommended 6 week wait. Patients who attend outpatient appointments often have to consult their GP to get a prescription that the hospital consultant has recommended, so that the GP bares the cost and not the hospital. My only issue with this article is that Dr Ingram highlights a number of problems with the NHS systems but then does not offer a single solution/idea on how these systems could be improved. When medical students are taught to write articles for publication it is drummed into us that we should always finish the discussion section with a conclusion and recommendations for further work/ implications for practice. I was just thinking that if doctors, medical students, nurses and NHS staff want to complain about the NHS’s failings then at least suggest some ways of improving these problems at the same time. This then turns what is essentially a complaint/rant into helpful, potentially productive criticism. If you (the staff) have noticed that these problems exist then you have also probably given some thought to why the problem exists, so why not just say/write how you think the issue could be resolved? If your grievances and solutions are documented and available then someone in the NHS administration might take your idea up and actually put it into practice, potentially reducing the problem (a disgustingly idealist thought I know). A number of times I have been told during medical school lectures and at key note speeches at conferences that medical students are a valuable resource to the NHS administration because we visit different hospitals, we wander around the whole hospital, we get exposed to the good and bad practice and we do not have any particular loyalty to any one department and can therefore objective observations. So, I was thinking it might be interesting to ask as many medical students as possible for their thoughts on how to improve the systems within the NHS. So I implore any of you reading this blog: write your own blog about short comings that you have noticed, make a recommendation for how to improve it and then maybe leave a link in the comments below this blog. If we start taking more of an interest in the NHS around us and start documenting where improvements could be made then maybe we could together work to create a more efficient and effective NHS. So I briefly just sat down and had a think earlier today about a few potential solutions for the problems highlighted in Dr Ingram’s article. A community pathology team that handles all of the GP’s pathology specimens and referrals. A “patient pathway co-ordinator” could be employed as additional administrative staff by GP surgeries to chase up all of the appointments and missing information that is currently using up a lot of the GP’s time and thereby freeing them to see more patients. I am sure this role is already carried out by admin staff in GP practices but perhaps in an ad hoc way, rather than that being their entire job. Do the majority of GP practices get access to the hospitals computer systems? Surely, if GPs had access to the hospital systems this would mean a greater efficiency for booking outpatient appointments and for allowing GPs to follow up test results etc. In the few outpatient departments I have come across outpatient appointments are often made by the administration team and then sent by letter to the patients, with the patient not being given a choice of when is good for them. Would it not be more efficient for the administrative staff to send the patients a number of appointment options for the patient to select one appropriate for them? Eliyahu M. Goldratt was a business consultant who revolutionized manufacturing efficiency a few years ago. He wrote a number of books on his theories that are very interesting and easy to read because he tries to explain most of his points using a narrative – “The Goal” and “Critical Chain” being just tow. His business theories focussed on finding the bottle neck in an industrial process, because if that is the rate limiting step in the manufacturing process then it is the most essential part for improving efficiency of the whole process. Currently, most GPs refer patients to outpatient appointments at hospitals and this can often take weeks or months. The outpatient appointments are a bottle neck in the process of getting patients the care they require. Therefore, focussing attention on how outpatient appointments are co-ordinated and run would improve the efficiency in the “patient pathway” as a whole. a. Run more outpatient clinics. b. Pay consultants overtime to do more clinics, potentially in the evenings or at weekends. While a lot may not want to do this, a few may volunteer and help to reduce the back log on the waiting lists. c. Have more patients seen by nurse specialists so that more time is freed up for the consultants to see the more urgent or serious patients. d. An obvious, yet expensive solution, hire more consultants to help with the ever increasing workload. e. Change the outpatient system so that it becomes more of an assembly line system with one doctor and a team of nurses handling the “new patient” appointments and another team handling the “old patient” follow up appointments rather than having them all mixed together at the same time. I am sure that there are many criticisms of the points I have written above and I would be interested to hear them. I would also love to hear any other solutions for the problems mentioned above. Final thought for today … Why shouldn’t medical students make criticisms of inefficiencies and point them out to the relevant administrator? If anyone else is interested in how the NHS as a whole is run then there is a new organisation called the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management that is keen to recruit interested student members (www.fmlm.ac.uk).  
jacob matthews
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1nuvntv?1444774080
2
794

Obesity Part 1 – Fat Kid in a Fat Society

Introduction to Obesity One of my favourite past-times is to sit in a bar, restaurant, café or coffee shop and people watch. I am sure many of you reading this also enjoying doing this too. People are fascinating and it is intriguing to observe: what they do; how they act; what they wear and what they look like. My family and I have always observed those around us and discussed interesting points about others that we have noticed. When I first came up to visit Birmingham University my family all sat in a coffee shop in the centre of Birmingham and noticed that on average the people walking past us looked much slimmer than what we were used to seeing back in south Wales. Now, when I go home it is more painfully obvious than ever that the people in my home region are much, much heavier than they should be and are noticeably bigger than they used to be even a short number of years ago. This change in the population around me is what first made me seriously think about obesity, as a major problem affecting the world today. Nowadays obesity is all around us! It is noticeable, it is spreading and it should worry us all. Not just for our own individual health but also for the health of our society. Obesity affects everything from the social dynamic of families, to relationships at school or work, to how much the NHS costs to run. Obesity is a massive problem and if we as a society don’t start getting to grips with it, then it will have huge implications for all of us! I am currently in my 5th year at medical school. While I have been here I have taken a keen interest in obesity. The physiology, the psychology, the anatomy, the statistics and the wider affects on society of obesity have all been covered in curriculum lectures and extra curriculum lectures. I have taken part in additional modules on these subjects and sort out many experts in this field while on hospital placements. Obesity is fascinating for some many reasons and I thought that it would be a great topic to write some blogs about and hopefully start some discussions. Warning For my first blog on the topic of obesity I quickly want to write a bit about myself and my battle with weight. Everyone’s favourite topic is themselves, but I like to think that’s not why I have written this and I hope it doesn’t come across as a narcissistic ramble. I don’t intend to try and make myself come off well or suggest that I have all the answers (because I know very well that I don’t) and I hope it doesn’t come across like that. I want to write a bit of an autobiography because I wish to demonstrate how easy it is to go from a chunky kid to a technically obese teenager to a relatively fat adult without really realising what was happening. Chunky Child to Fat adult While planning this blog I realised that my Meducation profile picture was taken when I was at my all time fattest. At the graduation ceremony at the end of my 3rd year at university after completing my intercalation I was over 19 stones. At 6 foot 2” this gave me a BMI of >33 which is clinically obese. I had a neck circumference of >18”, a chest circumference of 48”, a waist of >40”, a seat of >52” and a thigh circumference of >28” per leg. Why do I know all of these rather obscure measurements? Partly because I am quite obsessive but mainly because I had to go to buy a tailor made suit because I could no longer buy a suit from a shop that I could fit into and still be able to move in. The only options left to me where massive black tent-suits or to go to a tailors. After the graduation I sat down at my computer (whilst eating a block of cheese) and compared my face from the graduation photos to pictures I had taken at the start of university and the difference in shape and size was amazingly obvious. I had got fat! I realised that if I had a patient who was my age and looked like me with my measurements then I would tell him to lose weight for the good of his health. So, I decided that finally enough was enough and I that I should do something about it. Before I describe how I got on with the weight management I will quickly tell the back story of how I came to be this size. I have always been a big guy. I come from a big family. I have big bones. I had “puppy fat”. I was surrounded by people who ate too much, ate rubbish and were over weight themselves, so I didn’t always feel that there was anything wrong with carrying a bit of tub around the middle. When I went to comprehensive school at age 12 I had a 36” waist. I thought I carried the weight quite well because I was always tall and had big ribs I could sort of hide the soft belly. Soon after arriving at the new school I had put on more weight and for the first time in my life I started to get bullied for being fat! And I didn’t like it. It made me really self-aware and knocked my confidence. Luckily, we started being taught rugby in PE lessons and I soon found that being bigger, heavier and stronger than everyone else was a massive advantage. I soon got my own back on the bullies… there is nowhere to hide on a rugby field! This helped me gain my confidence and I realised that the only way to stop the bullying was to confront the bullies and to remake myself in such a way as that they would be unable to bully me. I decided to take up rugby and to start getting fit. I joined a local club, starting playing regularly, joined a gym and was soon looking less tubby. Reflecting (good medical jargon, check) on my life now I can see that my PE teachers saved me. By getting me hooked on rugby they helped get me into many other sports and physical activity in general and without their initial support I think my life would have gone very differently. Rugby was my saviour and also later on a bit of a curse. As I grew up I got bigger and bigger but also sportier. I started putting muscle on my shoulders, chest and legs which I was convinced hid how fat I actually was. I developed a body shape that was large but solid. I was convinced that although I was still carrying lots of excess weight I no longer looked tubby-fat. When I was 14 my PE teachers introduced me to athletics. They soon realised that I was built for shot putt and discuss throwing and after some initial success at small school competitions I joined a club and took it up seriously. At this age I had a waist of about 38” but was doing about 3-4 hours of exercise almost everyday, what with rugby, running, gym, swimming and athletics – in and out of school. My weight had by now increased to roughly 15 stones and my BMI was over 30. I was physically fit and succeeding at sport but still carrying quite a lot of fat. I no longer thought of myself as fat but I knew that other people did. Between the ages of 14 and 18 I started to be picked for regional teams in rugby and for international athletic competitions for Wales. My sporting career was going very well but the downside of this was that I was doing sports that benefited from me being heavier. So the better I got the heavier I wanted to become. I got to the stage where I was eating almost every hour and doing my best to put on weight. At the time I thought that I was putting on muscle and being a huge, toned sports machine. It took me a while to realise that actually my muscles weren't getting any bigger but my waist was! By the time I had completed my A-levels I was for the first time over 18 stones and had a waste of nearly 40”. So, at this point I was doing everything that I had been told that would make me more adapted for my sport and I was succeeding but without noticing it I was actually putting on lots of useless excess weight that in the long term was not good for me! During my first year of university I gave up athletics and decided that I no longer needed to be as heavy for my sports. This decision combined with living away from home, cooking for myself and walking over an hour a day to and from Uni soon began to bear fruit. By the summer of my first year at Uni, aged 19, I had for the first time in my life managed to control my weight. When I came to Uni I was 18 stone. After that first year I was down to 14 stone – a weight I had not been since I was 14 years old! I had played rugby for the Medical school during my first year but as a 2nd row/back row substitute. These positions needed me to be fit and not necessarily all that heavy and this helped me lose the weight. During my second year I began to start as a 2nd row and was soon asked to help out in the front row. I enjoyed playing these positions and again realised that I was pretty good at it and that extra weight would make me even better. So between 2nd year and the end of 3rd year I had put on nearly 5 stone in weight and this put me back to where I started at my graduation at the end of 3rd year. The ironic and sad thing is about all this that the fatter, less “good looking” and unhealthier I became, the better I was adapted for the sports I had chosen. It had never occurred to me that being good at competitive sports might actually be bad for my health. The Change and life lessons learnt At the beginning of my 4th year I had realised that I was fatter than I should be and had started to pick up a number of niggly injuries from playing these tough, body destroying positions in rugby. I decided that I would start to take the rugby less seriously and aim to stay fit and healthy rather than be good at a competitive sport. With this new attitude to life I resolved to lose weight. Over the course of the year there were a number of ups and downs. I firstly went back to all the men’s health magazines that I had stock piled over the years and started to work out where I was going wrong with my health. After a little investigation it became apparent that going running and working out in the gym was not enough to become healthy. If you want to be slim and healthy then your diet is far more important than what physical activity you do. My diet used to be almost entirely based on red meat and carbs: steak, mince, bacon, rice and pasta. Over the year I changed my diet to involve far more vegetables, more fibre, more fruit, more salad and way less meat! The result was that by Christmas 2012 I was finally back below 18 stones. The diet had started to have benefits. Then came exams! By the end of exams in April 2013 I had gone back up 19 stones and a waist of >40”. I was still spending nearly 2 hours a day doing weights in the gym and running or cycling 3 times a week. Even with all this exercise and a new self- awareness of my size, a terrible diet over the 3 week exam period had meant that I gained a lot of fat. After exams I went travelling in China for 3 weeks. While I was there I ate only local food and lots of coffee. Did not each lunch and was walking around exploring for over 6 hours a day. When I got back I was 17.5 stone, about 106kg. My waist had shrunk back down to 36” and I could fit into clothes I had not worn in years. This sudden weight loss was not explained by traveller’s diarrhoea or any increased activity above normal. What made me lose weight was eating a fairly healthy diet and eating far less calories than I normally would. I know this sounds like common sense but I had always read and believed that if you exercised enough then you could lose weight without having to decrease your calorie intake too much. I have always hated the sensation of being hungry and have always eaten regular to avoid this awful gnawing sensation. I had almost become hunger-phobic, always eating when given the opportunity just in case I might feel hungry later and not because I actually needed to eat. The time in China made me realise that actually I don’t NEED to eat that regularly and I don’t NEED to eat that much. I can survive perfectly ably without regular sustenance and have more than enough fat stores to live my life fully without needing to each too much. My eating had just become a habit, a WANT and completely unnecessary. After being home for a month I have had some ups and downs trying to put my new plans into action. Not eating works really easily in a foreign country, where it’s hot, you are busy and you don’t have a house full of food or relatives that want to feed you. I have managed to maintain my weight around 17.5 stones and kept my waist within 36” trousers. I am counting that as a success so far. The plan from now on is to get my weight down to under 16.5 stones because I believe that as this weight I will not be carrying too much excess weight and my BMI will be as close to “not obese” as it is likely to get without going on a starvation diet. I intend to achieve this goal by maintain my level of physical activity – at least 6 hours of gym work a week, 2 cardio sessions, tennis, squash, cycling, swimming and golf as the whim takes me. BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY, I intend to survive off far fewer calories with a diet based on bran flakes, salad, fruit, nuts, chicken and milk. I am hoping that this very simple plan will work! Conclusion Writing this short(-ish) autobiography was quite cathartic and I would really recommend it for other people who are trying to remake themselves. Its helped me put my thoughts in order. Over the years I wanted to lose weight because I wanted to look better. This desire has now matured into a drive to be not just slimmer but healthier; I no longer want to be slimmer just for the looks but also to reduce the pressure on my joints, to reduce the pressure on my cardiovascular system, to reduce my risks of being fat when I am older, to hopefully reduce the risk of dying prematurely and to some extent to make life cheaper – eating loads of meat to prevent hunger is expensive! I hope this blog has been mildly interesting, but also informative of just how easy it is for even a health conscious, sporty individual to become fat in our society. I also wanted to document how difficult it is to lose weight and maintain that new lower weight for any prolonged length of time. At some point I would like to do a blog on the best methods for weight loss but that may have to wait until I have found what works for me and if I do actually manage to achieve my goals. Would be a bit hypercritical to write such a blog while still having a BMI yo-yoing around 32 I feel! Thought for the day 1 - Gaining wait is easy, becoming fat is easy, losing fat is also technically easy! The hard part is developing AND then maintaining a healthy mental attitude towards your weight. The human body has evolved to survive starvation. We are almost perfectly made to build up high density fat stores just in case next year’s crops fail and we have to go a few months on broth. I will say it again – We are designed to survive hard conditions! The problem with the modern world and with modern society is that we no longer have to fight to survive. For the first time in human history food is no longer scarce… it is in fact incredibly abundant and cheap (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Z74og9HbTM). It is no surprise that when a human body is allowed to eat want and how much it craves and then do as little activity as possible, that it puts on fat very quickly. This has to be one of the major ironies of our age – When the human race has evolved society enough that we no longer need to have fat stores in case of disaster, that we are now the fattest humans have ever been! 2 – The best bit of advice I was ever given is this: “Diets ALWAYS fail! No matter what the diet or how determined you are, if you diet then within 2 years you will be the same weight or heavier than you are now. The only way to a healthy body is through a healthy LIFESTYLE CHANGE! You have to make changes that you are prepared to keep for a long time.”  
jacob matthews
about 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1hbf5w2?1444774116
2
255

Creating the Pre-Hospital Emergency Medicine Service in the West Midlands –The Inaugural lecture of the Birmingham Students Medical Leadership Society

Many thanks to everyone who attended the Birmingham Students Medical Leadership Society’s first ever lecture on November 7th 2013. The committee was extraordinarily pleased with the turn out and hope to see you all at our next lectures. We must also say a big thank you to Dr Nicholas Crombie for being our Inaugural speaker, he gave a fantastic lecture and we have received a number of rave reviews and requests for a follow up lecture next year! Dr Crombie’s talk focussed on three main areas: 1) A short personal history focussing on why and how Dr Crombie became head of one of the UK’s best Pre-Hospital Emergency Medicine (PHEM) services and the first post-graduate dean in charge of PHEM trainees. 2) The majority of the lecture was a case history on the behind the scenes activity that was required to create the West Midlands Pre-Hospital Network and training program. In summary, over a decade ago it was realised that the UK was lagging behind other developed nations in our Emergency Medicine and Trauma service provisions. There were a number of disjointed and only partially trained services in place for major incidents. The British government and a number of leading health think-tanks put forward proposals for creating a modern effective service. Dr Crombie was a senior doctor in the West Midlands air ambulance charity, the BASICS program and had worked with the West Midlands Ambulance service. Dr Crombie was able to collect a team of senior doctors, nurses, paramedics and managers from all of the emergency medicine services and charities within the West Midlands together. This collaboration of ambulance service, charities, BASIC teams, CARE team and NHS Trusts was novel to the UK. The collaboration was able to tender for central government and was the first such scheme in the UK to be approved. Since the scheme’s approval 5 major trauma units have been established within the West Midlands and a new trauma desk was created at the Ambulance service HQ which can call on the help of a number of experienced teams that can be deployed within minutes to a major incident almost anywhere in the West Midlands. This major reformation of a health service was truly inspirational, especially when it was achieved by a number of clinicians with relatively little accredited management training and without them giving up their clinical time, a true clinical leadership success story. 3) The last component of the evening was Dr Crombie’s thoughts on why this project had been successful and how simple basic principles could be applied to almost any other project. Dr Crombie’s 3 big principles were: Collaborate – leave your ego’s at the door and try to put together a team that can work together. If you have to, invite everyone involved to a free dinner at your expense – even doctors don’t turn down free food! Governance – establish a set of rules/guidelines that dictate how your project will be run. Try to get everyone involved singing off the same hymn sheet. A very good example of this from Dr Crombie’s case history was that all of the services involved in the scheme agreed to use the same emergency medicine kit and all follow the same Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), so that when the teams work together they almost work as one single effective team rather than distinct groups that cannot interact. Resilience – the service you reform/create must withstand the test of time. If a project is solely driven by one person then it will collapse as soon as that person moves on. This is a well-known problem with the NHS as a whole, new managers always have “great new ideas” and as soon as that manager changes job all of their hard work goes to waste. To ensure that a project has resilience, the “project manager” must create a sense of purpose and ownership of the project within their teams. Members of the team must “buy in” to the goals of the project and one of the best ways of doing that is to ask the team members for their advice on how the project should proceed. If people feel a project was their idea then they are far more likely to work for it. This requires the manager to keep their ego on a short leash and to let their team take credit. The take home message from this talk was that the days of doctors being purely clinical is over! If you want to be a consultant in any speciality in the future, you will need a basic underlying knowledge of management and leadership. Upcoming events from the Birmingham Students Medical Leadership Society: Wednesday 27th November LT3 Medical School, 6pm ‘Learning to Lead- Preparing the next generation of junior doctors for management’ By Mr Tim Smart, CEO Kings Hospital NHS Trust Thursday 5th December LT3 Medical School, 6pm ‘Why should doctors get involved in management’ By Dr Mark Newbold, CEO of BHH NHS Trust If you would like to get in touch with the society or attend any of our events please do contact us by email or via our Facebook group. We look forward to hearing from you. https://www.facebook.com/groups/676838225676202/ med.leadership.soc.uob@gmail.com  
jacob matthews
almost 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 37skir?1444774198
2
105

Biohacking - The Brighter Side of Health

2014 is already more than a month old (if you can believe it) and with each passing day, the world we live in is speeding towards breakthroughs in every sphere of life. We're running full tilt, wanting to be bigger and better than we were the day or the hour before. Every passing day reinvents the 'cutting edge' of technology, including medical progress and advancement. Gone are the medieval days when doctors were considered all knowing deities, while medicine consisted of leeches being used to drain 'bad blood'. Nowadays, health isn't just about waiting around until you pick up an infection, then going to your local GP to get treated; in today's world it's all about sustaining your wellbeing. And for that, the new kid on the block is biohacking. Biohacking is the art and science of maximizing your biological potential. As a hacker aims to gain complete control of the system he's trying to infiltrate, be it social or technological; similarly a biohacker aims to obtain full control of his own biology. Simply put, a biohacker looks for techniques to improve himself and his way of life. Before you let your imagination run away with you and start thinking of genetic experiments gone wrong, let me assure you that a biohack is really just about any activity you can do to increase your capabilities or advance your wellbeing. Exercising daily can be a biohack. So can doing the crossword or solving math sums, if it raises your IQ by a few points or improves your general knowledge. What characterizes biohacking is the end goal and the consequent modification of activities to achieve that goal. So what kind of goals would a biohacker have? World domination? Not quite. Adding more productive hours to the day and more productivity to those hours? Check. Eliminating stress and it's causes from their lives? Check. Improving mood, memory and recall, and general happiness? You bet. So the question arises; aren't we all biohackers of sorts? After all, the above mentioned objectives are what everyone aspires to achieve in their lives at one point or the other. unfortunately for all the lazy people out there (including yours truly), biohacking involves being just a tad bit more pro active than just scribbling down a list of such goals as New Year resolutions! There are two main approaches to selecting a biohack that works for you- the biggest aim and the biggest gain. The biggest aim would be targeting those capabilities, an improvement in which would greatly benefit you. This could be as specific as improving your public speaking skills or as general as working upon your diet so you feel more fit and alert. In today's competitive, cut throat world, even the slightest edge can ensure that you reach the finish line first. The biggest gain would be to choose a technique that is low cost- in other words, one that is beneficial yet doesn't burn a hole through your pocket! It isn't possible to give a detailed description of all the methods pioneering biohackers have initiated, but here are some general areas that you can try to upgrade in your life: Hack your diet- They say you are what you eat. Your energy levels are related to what you eat, when you take your meals, the quantity you consume etc. your mood and mental wellbeing is greatly affected by your diet. I could go on and on, but this point is self expanatory. You need to hack your diet! Eat healthier and live longer. Hack your brain- Our minds are capable of incredible things when they're trained to function productively. Had this not been the case, you and I would still be sitting in our respective caves, shivering and waiting for someone to think long enough to discover fire. You don't have to be a neuroscientist to improve your mental performance-studies show that simply knowing you have the power to improve your intelligence is the first step to doing it. Hack your abilities- Your mindset often determines your capacity to rise to a challenge and your ability to achieve. For instance, if you're told that you can't achieve a certain goal because you're a woman, or because you're black or you're too fat or too short, well obviously you're bound to restrict yourself in a mental prison of your own shortcomings. But it's a brave new world so push yourself further. Try something new, be that tacking on an extra lap to your daily exercise routine or squeezing out the extra time to do some volunteer work. Your talents should keep growing right along with you. Hack your age- You might not be able to do much about those birthday candles that just keep adding up...but you can certainly hack how 'old' you feel. Instead of buying in on the notion that you decline as you grow older, look around you. Even simple things such as breathing and stamina building exercises can change the way you age. We have a responsibility to ourselves and to those around us to live our lives to the fullest. So maximise your potential, push against your boundaries, build the learning curve as you go along. After all, health isn't just the absence of disease but complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and biohacking seems to be Yellow Brick Road leading right to it!  
Huda Qadir
over 5 years ago
Preview
1
49

Step 1 - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should: Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff. The health facility should have a written breastfeeding policy that addresses all 10 steps and protects breastfeeding...[it] should be available so that all staff who take care of mothers and babies can refer to it... should be visibly posted in all areas of the health care facility which serve mothers, infants, and/or children...and should be displayed in the language(s) most commonly understood by patients and staff. The first step is to have a written breastfeeding policy in English and the local languages. It addresses all the ten steps and states that the hospital does not accept free or subsidized supplies of infant formula and feeding bottles. The policy is communicated to the hospital administration as well as to all the health workers in the maternity setting. More inf http://tensteps.org/step-1-successful-breastfeeding.shtml --.-- Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Video Series Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life -- meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water -- it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved. This video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. Our goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for newborn infants. Videos, presentations, research, evidence, papers, training and counselling materials, tools, and many other related and supporting resources are available. Visit us on-line a http://tensteps.org .  
Nand Wadhwani
almost 9 years ago
29634
1
41

Step 3 - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should: Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breastfeeding. If the hospital has an affiliated antenatal clinic or antenatal ward...breastfeeding counseling [should be] given to most pregnant women using those services...The antenatal discussion should cover the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months, the benefits of breastfeeding, and basic breastfeeding management...Pregnant women of 32 weeks or more gestation...should confirm that the benefits of breastfeeding have been discussed with them...[including] at least two of the following benefits: Nutritional, protective, bonding, health benefits to the mother...and that they have received no group education on the use of infant formula. They should be able to describe at least two of the following breastfeeding management topics: importance of rooming-in, importance of feeding on demand, how to assure enough milk, and positioning and attachment. The third step is to have sessions with pregnant women to motivate them for breastfeeding and to remove all their doubts. More inf http://tensteps.org/step-3-successful-breastfeeding.shtml Benefits of Breastfeedin http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding.shtml Benefits for Infan http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-for-the-infant.shtml Benefits for Mothe http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-for-the-mother.shtml Benefits for the Famil http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-for-the-family.shtml Benefits for the Hospita http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-for-the-hospital.shtml Benefits for the Environment & Societ http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-for-the-environment-society.shtml Other Benefit http://tensteps.org/benefits-of-breastfeeding-other.shtml --.-- Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Video Series Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life -- meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water -- it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved. This video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. Our goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for newborn infants. Videos, presentations, research, evidence, papers, training and counselling materials, tools, and many other related and supporting resources are available. Visit us on-line a http://tensteps.org .  
Nand Wadhwani
almost 9 years ago
29635
1
40

Step 4 - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should: Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within a half-hour of birth. Mothers in the maternity ward who have had normal vaginal deliveries should confirm that within a half-hour of birth they were given their babies to hold with skin contact, for at least 30 minutes, and offered help by a staff member to initiate breastfeeding...At least 50% of mothers who have had caesarean deliveries should confirm that within a half-hour of being able to respond, they were given their babies to hold with skin contact. It is now well established that mothers who are supported to initiate breastfeeding soon after the baby is born are more likely to have a successful breastfeeding experience. So the fourth step is to initiate breastfeeding within a half--hour of birth. More inf http://tensteps.org/step-4-successful-breastfeeding.shtml Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Craw http://breastcrawl.org --.-- Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Video Series Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life -- meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water -- it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved. This video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. Our goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for newborn infants. Videos, presentations, research, evidence, papers, training and counselling materials, tools, and many other related and supporting resources are available. Visit us on-line a http://tensteps.org .  
Nand Wadhwani
almost 9 years ago
29647
1
28

Step 5 - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should: Show mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation, even if they should be separated from their infants. Nursing staff should offer further assistance with breastfeeding within six hours of delivery and mothers should be shown how to express their milk or given written information on expression and/or advised where they could get help, should they need it...Mothers with babies in special care should be helped to initiate and maintain lactation by frequent expression of breastmilk...Staff should teach mothers positioning/attachment and techniques for manual expression of breastmilk. A situation can arise when the baby has to be separated from her mother for a specific medical reason. The fifth step is to show the mother how to maintain lactation by expression of breast milk or to visit her baby in the intensive case as often as possible. More inf http://tensteps.org/step-5-successful-breastfeeding.shtml --.-- Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Video Series Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life -- meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water -- it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved. This video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. Our goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for newborn infants. Videos, presentations, research, evidence, papers, training and counselling materials, tools, and many other related and supporting resources are available. Visit us on-line a http://tensteps.org .  
Nand Wadhwani
almost 9 years ago
29648
1
34

Step 6 - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should: Give newborn infants no food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated. For any breastfeeding babies being given food or drink other than breastmilk there should be acceptable medical reasons. No promotion for infant foods or drinks other than breastmilk should be displayed or distributed to mothers, staff, or the facility. The sixth step stresses that a newborn baby must not be given any food or drinks other than breast milk unless it is medically indicated. As the pregnant women are counseled in advance and the hospital staff is trained, we rarely have to give anything other than colostrums -- the first breast milk to the babies. More inf http://tensteps.org/step-6-successful-breastfeeding.shtml --.-- Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Video Series Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life -- meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water -- it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved. This video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. Our goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for newborn infants. Videos, presentations, research, evidence, papers, training and counselling materials, tools, and many other related and supporting resources are available. Visit us on-line a http://tensteps.org .  
Nand Wadhwani
almost 9 years ago