New to Meducation?
Sign up
Already signed up? Log In

Category

Preview
5
89

Physiology of the pancreatic α-cell and glucagon secretion: role in glucose homeostasis and diabetes

The secretion of glucagon by pancreatic α-cells plays a critical role in the regulation of glycaemia. This hormone counteracts hypoglycaemia and opposes insulin actions by stimulating hepatic glucose synthesis and mobilization, thereby increasing blood glucose concentrations. During the last decade, knowledge of α-cell physiology has greatly improved, especially concerning molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this review, we have addressed recent findings on α-cell physiology and the regulation of ion channels, electrical activity, calcium signals and glucagon release. Our focus in this review has been the multiple control levels that modulate glucagon secretion from glucose and nutrients to paracrine and neural inputs. Additionally, we have described the glucagon actions on glycaemia and energy metabolism, and discussed their involvement in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Finally, some of the present approaches for diabetes therapy related to α-cell function are also discussed in this review. A better understanding of the α-cell physiology is necessary for an integral comprehension of the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the development of diabetes.  
joe.endocrinology-journals.org
over 4 years ago
Preview
0
27

Mythbusting: Correcting the anion gap for albumin is not helpful

0 Introduction 0 In 1998 Figge reported a strong linear relationship between anion gap and albumin concentration, which has led to the widespread recommend  
pulmcrit.org
over 4 years ago
Preview
0
22

Calcium Homeostasis with Dr. Lederer

Dr. Lederer is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Lousiville. She is the Chief of the Division of Nephrology and the Program Director fo...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
Preview
5
171

Cerebrospinal fluid

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced from arterial blood by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and fourth ventricles by a combined process of diffusion, pinocytosis and active transfer. A small amount is also produced by ependymal cells. The choroid plexus consists of tufts of capillaries with thin fenestrated endothelial cells. These are covered by modified ependymal cells with bulbous microvilli. The total volume of CSF in the adult ranges from140 to 270 ml. The volume of the ventricles is about 25 ml. CSF is produced at a rate of 0.2 - 0.7 ml per minute or 600-700 ml per day. The circulation of CSF is aided by the pulsations of the choroid plexus and by the motion of the cilia of ependymal cells. CSF is absorbed across the arachnoid villi into the venous circulation and a significant amount probably also drains into lymphatic vessels around the cranial cavity and spinal canal. The arachnoid villi act as one-way valves between the subarachnoid space and the dural sinuses. The rate of absorption correlates with the CSF pressure. CSF acts as a cushion that protects the brain from shocks and supports the venous sinuses (primarily the superior sagittal sinus, opening when CSF pressure exceeds venous pressure). It also plays an important role in the homeostasis and metabolism of the central nervous system.  
neuropathology-web.org
about 4 years ago
Preview
18
1228

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1

You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if y...  
youtube.com
almost 4 years ago
Preview
27
1050

Physiology of Insulin and Glucagon

A description of the competing roles of insulin and glycogen, including their effects on glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic hormones (e.g. GLP1, GIP, c...  
youtube.com
almost 4 years ago
Preview
0
11

Critical Care

The microcirculation supplies oxygen (O2) and nutrients to all cells with the red blood cell (RBC) acting as both a deliverer and sensor of O2. In sepsis, a proinflammatory disease with microvascular complications, small blood vessel alterations are associated with multi-organ dysfunction and poor septic patient outcome. We hypothesized that microvascular autoregulation—existing at three levels: over the entire capillary network, within a capillary and within the erythrocyte—was impaired during onset of sepsis. This study had three objectives: 1) measure capillary response time within hypoxic capillaries, 2) test the null hypothesis that RBC O2-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) efflux was not altered by sepsis and 3) develop a framework of a pathophysiological model.  
ccforum.com
almost 4 years ago
Preview
23
1984

Acid Base Balance and ABG Analysis Lecture

Acid Base balance and ABG analysis lecture overing Acidosis, Alkaline Condition and Effects of PH.  
youtube.com
almost 4 years ago
Preview
1
15

Walter Bradford Cannon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School. He coined the term fight or flight response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard's concept of homeostasis. He popularized his theories in his book The Wisdom of the Body, first published in 1932. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Cannon as the 81st most cited scholar of the 20th century in technical psychology journals, introductory psychology textbooks, and survey responses.[2][3]  
en.wikipedia.org
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
7

Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy | Cochrane

Vitamin D is produced by the human body from exposure to sunlight and can also be consumed from foods such as fish-liver oils, fatty fish, mushrooms, egg yolks, and liver. Vitamin D has many functions in the body; it helps maintain bone integrity and calcium homeostasis.  
cochrane.org
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
9

Antihypertensive treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes

Clinically, pathophysiologically, and epidemiologically type 2 diabetes (hereafter, “diabetes”) and hypertension are tightly linked.1 About 50-60% of adults with diabetes have hypertension but only half with both conditions have adequate blood pressure control. Those with diabetes and hypertension are particularly susceptible to vascular injury because diabetes is associated with higher nocturnal pressures with greater 24 hour blood pressure load,2 impaired flow mediated autoregulation with associated microvascular injury, and stiffening of large arteries leading to increases in pulse pressure.1 Thus people with diabetes and hypertension are at an exponentially increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and end stage renal disease.2  
feeds.bmj.com
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
7

Antihypertensive treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes

Clinically, pathophysiologically, and epidemiologically type 2 diabetes (hereafter, “diabetes”) and hypertension are tightly linked.1 About 50-60% of adults with diabetes have hypertension but only half with both conditions have adequate blood pressure control. Those with diabetes and hypertension are particularly susceptible to vascular injury because diabetes is associated with higher nocturnal pressures with greater 24 hour blood pressure load,2 impaired flow mediated autoregulation with associated microvascular injury, and stiffening of large arteries leading to increases in pulse pressure.1 Thus people with diabetes and hypertension are at an exponentially increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and end stage renal disease.2  
feeds.bmj.com
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
10

Antihypertensive treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes

Clinically, pathophysiologically, and epidemiologically type 2 diabetes (hereafter, “diabetes”) and hypertension are tightly linked.1 About 50-60% of adults with diabetes have hypertension but only half with both conditions have adequate blood pressure control. Those with diabetes and hypertension are particularly susceptible to vascular injury because diabetes is associated with higher nocturnal pressures with greater 24 hour blood pressure load,2 impaired flow mediated autoregulation with associated microvascular injury, and stiffening of large arteries leading to increases in pulse pressure.1 Thus people with diabetes and hypertension are at an exponentially increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and end stage renal disease.2  
feeds.bmj.com
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
7

Antihypertensive treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes

Clinically, pathophysiologically, and epidemiologically type 2 diabetes (hereafter, “diabetes”) and hypertension are tightly linked.1 About 50-60% of adults with diabetes have hypertension but only half with both conditions have adequate blood pressure control. Those with diabetes and hypertension are particularly susceptible to vascular injury because diabetes is associated with higher nocturnal pressures with greater 24 hour blood pressure load,2 impaired flow mediated autoregulation with associated microvascular injury, and stiffening of large arteries leading to increases in pulse pressure.1 Thus people with diabetes and hypertension are at an exponentially increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and end stage renal disease.2  
feeds.bmj.com
over 3 years ago
Preview
0
8

Antihypertensive treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes

Clinically, pathophysiologically, and epidemiologically type 2 diabetes (hereafter, “diabetes”) and hypertension are tightly linked.1 About 50-60% of adults with diabetes have hypertension but only half with both conditions have adequate blood pressure control. Those with diabetes and hypertension are particularly susceptible to vascular injury because diabetes is associated with higher nocturnal pressures with greater 24 hour blood pressure load,2 impaired flow mediated autoregulation with associated microvascular injury, and stiffening of large arteries leading to increases in pulse pressure.1 Thus people with diabetes and hypertension are at an exponentially increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and end stage renal disease.2  
feeds.bmj.com
over 3 years ago
Preview
1
12

Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis  
lifeinthefastlane.com
over 3 years ago