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Hormonal birth control and fracture risk in observational studies | Cochrane

When bone mass declines with age, the risk of fractures increases. Birth control methods that have hormones may lead to changes in women’s bone density. Worry about fractures may limit the use of these effective methods. Observational studies can collect data on birth control use as well as fractures later in life. Through June 2015, we searched for such studies in several databases.   
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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13

The safety of incretin based drugs

Important concerns have been raised about the impact of incretin based drugs on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two linked papers by Li and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.g2366) and Faillie and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.g2780) could help us decide whether patients and clinicians should consider these concerns when choosing an antihyperglycemic drug.1 2  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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20

Incretin based drugs and risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes: cohort study

Objectives To determine whether the use of incretin based drugs, compared with sulfonylureas, is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 6 years ago
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1

Methods to reduce pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception | Cochrane

Fear of pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception (IUC) may cause women to avoid using this very effective method of birth control. IUC includes devices with copper and with the hormone levonorgestrel. Researchers have studied many ways of reducing pain with IUC insertion. These include drugs that lessen uterine cramps, soften and open the cervix (uterus opening), or numb the cervix.  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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5

The risk of heart attack and stroke in women using birth control pills | Cochrane

Since their introduction, combined oral contraceptive pills have become one of the most popular birth control methods. These pills contain two types of female hormones, estrogen and progestagen. When used correctly, the failure rate (i.e. the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy) is less than one per 100 women per year. Despite their reliability, oral contraceptive pills have been found to increase the risk of a blood clot forming in an artery, i.e. arterial thrombosis (heart attack or stroke). As arterial thrombosis is rare in young women, and as many types of oral contraceptive pills exist, the size of the risk is unclear. Furthermore, the effect of different types of progestagens or different doses of estrogen on the risk of arterial thrombosis is unknown.  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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2
48

Neurotransmitter Receptors Alter Postsynaptic Membrane Permeability - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf

In 1907, the British physiologist John N. Langley introduced the concept of receptor molecules to explain the specific and potent actions of certain chemicals on muscle and nerve cells. Much subsequent work has shown that receptor molecules do indeed account for the ability of neurotransmitters, hormones, and drugs to alter the functional properties of neurons. While it has been clear since Langley's day that receptors are important for synaptic transmission, their identity and detailed mechanism of action remained a mystery until quite recently. It is now known that neurotransmitter receptors are proteins embedded in the plasma membrane of postsynaptic cells. Domains of receptor molecules that extend into the synaptic cleft bind neurotransmitters that are released into this space by the presynaptic neuron. The binding of neurotransmitters, either directly or indirectly, causes ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane to open or close (Figure 7.1). Typically, the resulting ion fluxes change the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell, thus mediating the transfer of information across the synapse. Figure 7.1Receptors that mediate the postsynaptic actions of neurotransmitters have two functions. First, specific binding sites on the extracellular side of receptors allow these proteins to detect the presence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. Second, transmitter-bound receptors alter the ionic permeability of the postsynaptic membrane by virtue of being coupled, directly or indirectly, to ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. Opening or closing these channels as a result of transmitter binding allows ionic currents to flow, thus changing the postsynaptic membrane potential.  
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
almost 6 years ago
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25

Fibromyalgia Linked to Deficiencies in RBC Magnesium, IGF-1

A small study shows deficiencies in red blood cell magnesium and insulin-like growth factor 1 in patients with fibromyalgia and reflects growing interest in the role of hormones and endocrine factors in chronic pain.  
medscape.com
over 5 years ago