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Microcephaly risk with Zika infection is 1-13% in first trimester, study shows

Maternal infection with the Zika virus in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an estimated 1% to 13% risk of microcephaly, researchers from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have reported.1 Their study found “negligible” association between infection and the risk of microcephaly in the second and third trimesters.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 4 years ago
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Reduction of Chikungunya Virus Infection With Mosquito Traps

Testing of a new, low-cost mosquito trap that requires no pesticides or servicing shows promise in reducing transmission of several mosquito born viruses including chikungunya, dengue and Zika.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Smartphone-Based Genetic Testing Identifies Hospital Pathogens

A new smartphone-based genetic testing device can rapidly identify pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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ID and Management of Chronic HCV Infection -- Cherokee Nation

Hepatitis C virus infection disproportionately affects the American Indian/Alaska Native populations. What steps are being taken to increase awareness, testing, and treatment in the Cherokee Nation?  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Diagnosis and Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults - American Family Physician

Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are admitted to the intensive care unit should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic, plus azithromycin or a respiratory fluoroquinolone. Those with risk factors for Pseudomonas should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic (piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem, doripenem, or cefepime), plus an aminoglycoside and azithromycin or an antipseudomonal fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin). Those with risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus should be given vancomycin or linezolid. Hospitalized patients may be switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics after they have clinical improvement and are able to tolerate oral medications, typically in the first three days. Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Physicians should promote pneumococcal and influenza vaccination as a means to prevent community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteremia.  
aafp.org
about 4 years ago
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Infections resist 'last antibiotic' in US - BBC News

The first case of an infection that can resist the antibiotic of last resort - colistin - has been detected in the US.  
bbc.co.uk
about 4 years ago
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Diagnosing Sepsis Is Subjective and Highly Variable

What accounts for the variability in the diagnosis of severe sepsis -- and what approaches may help improve consistency?  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in Arizona

What is the main cause of severe acute respiratory infections on the US-Mexico border? Read the disease surveillance data here.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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First US Case of E coli Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

A strain of E coli resistant to the last-resort antibiotic colistin stokes fears of ordinary infections that can kill.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Do dressings prevent infection of closed primary wounds after surgery?

There is insufficient evidence to know whether dressings reduce the risk of surgical site infection in closed primary surgical wounds  
feeds.bmj.com
about 4 years ago
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Skin Cancer Patients Face Deadly Risk Using 'Black Salve' Home Remedy

People who fear they have skin cancer, or know it, and decide to try an unapproved product called "black salve" may face infection, scarring and worse cancer outcomes, doctors warn.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Are CDC Hepatitis Screening Recommendations Effective? CME/CE

: Following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for one-time hepatitis C virus screening in those born from 1945-1965 without risk factors might miss one-quarter of infections.  
medscape.org
about 4 years ago
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Do dressings prevent infection of closed primary wounds after surgery?

There is insufficient evidence to know whether dressings reduce the risk of surgical site infection in closed primary surgical wounds  
feeds.bmj.com
about 4 years ago
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Probiotics Keep C difficile at Bay in Patients on Antibiotics

Probiotics can protect against Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics. In a new meta-analysis, infection rates were cut by more than half.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management

Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level. Despite uncertainties in hemodynamic management and several treatments that have failed in clinical trials, investigational therapies increasingly target sepsis induced organ and immune dysfunction. Outcomes in sepsis have greatly improved overall, probably because of an enhanced focus on early diagnosis and fluid resuscitation, the rapid delivery of effective antibiotics, and other improvements in supportive care for critically ill patients. These improvements include lung protective ventilation, more judicious use of blood products, and strategies to reduce nosocomial infections.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 4 years ago
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Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management

Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level. Despite uncertainties in hemodynamic management and several treatments that have failed in clinical trials, investigational therapies increasingly target sepsis induced organ and immune dysfunction. Outcomes in sepsis have greatly improved overall, probably because of an enhanced focus on early diagnosis and fluid resuscitation, the rapid delivery of effective antibiotics, and other improvements in supportive care for critically ill patients. These improvements include lung protective ventilation, more judicious use of blood products, and strategies to reduce nosocomial infections.  
feeds.bmj.com
about 4 years ago
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Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women -- US

This is the first in what will be a weekly reporting by the CDC of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection in U.S. states and territories. What are the latest numbers?  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women — United States and Territories, May 2016 | MMWR

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  
cdc.gov
about 4 years ago
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Death Risk With Off-Label Oral Ketoconazole Use, FDA Warns

Clinicians continue to prescribe ketoconazole tablets for skin and nail fungal infections, even though the FDA withdrew those indications in 2013 in light of the risk for liver damage and death.  
medscape.com
about 4 years ago
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Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery after Ebola Virus Disease and Implications for Infection Control in Obstetric Services, United States CME

Abstract and Introduction: There are many unknowns regarding maternity care among women with a history of infection with Ebola virus disease. The current case provides some answers.  
medscape.org
about 4 years ago