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Post Coital Bleeding

Causes InfectionChlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis (rarer cause) Risk factors – ask about partners (number of partners, protection, Hx of sexually transmitted infection etc) Ask about other symptoms –discharge, pain Cervical / endometrial polyps  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - PID

This is an inflammatory condition (often secondary to infection), affecting any part of the higher female reproductive system, e.g.; uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. Salpingitis – this term is sometimes used interchangeably with PID, but technically only refers to inflammation in the fallopian tubes. Endometritis   Risk factors STD: Young age (16-24)  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Trichomoniasis

This is a parasitic protozoan infection, the result of infection with the flagellated anaerobic trichomonas vaginalis. This is the most common protozoan infection in the developed world It is a sexually transmitted infection although men are usually asymptomatic.   Epidemiology  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Human Papilloma Virus - HPV

Epidemiology The most common STI in the UK Estimated that 10-20% of the population have a genital HPV infection, but only 1% of the population are symptomatic at any one time   Pathology The result of HPV infection. There are >100 types of HPV, and only several cause warts. HPV types 6 and 11 account for >90% of cases   Spread  
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over 5 years ago
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Urinary Tract Infection - UTI

 
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over 5 years ago
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Guillain-Barre Syndrome

This is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). It typically comes on several weeks after viral infection, usually, GI or URTI (also sometimes flu vaccine [controversial]). HIV is also known to be a cause. In up to 40% of cases, no precipitating factor can be found.   Epidemiology 1-2 per 100 000 In 40% of cases, no cause is found  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Infective Endocarditis

This is a condition caused by infection of the endocardium by bacteria, or rarely, fungus. It most commonly affects the heart valves (natural or prosthetic), but can occur anywhere along the lining of the heart or blood vessels. It will most commonly occur at sites of previous damage, however, particularly virulent organisms (such as staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pneumoniae) can infect previously normal areas of tissue; for example, Staph. Aureus will commonly infect the tricuspid valve in IV drug users.    
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over 5 years ago
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Pericarditis

The normal pericardium This contains about 50ml of fluid, and help lubricate the movement of the heart. It helps to: Limit distension of the heart Protect the heart from infection / damage Aids the filling of the ventricles However – congenital defects of the pericardium do not appear to have much impact on heart function.   Acute Pericarditis Causes  
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over 5 years ago
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Fifth Disease

Fifth Disease - so called as it was the fifth of the six common childhood skin rashes when it was first classified back in the 18th and 19th centuries. Formally known as Erythema Infectiosum and also colloquially called slapped cheek syndrome. Aietiology and Epidemiology  Caused by infection with Parvovirus B19 (aka erythrovirus)    
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over 5 years ago
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Meningitis

Definitions Meningitis – although this technically only means inflammation of the meninges, it is usually taken to mean infection. Meningitis is far more common in infants and children than in adults.   Causes There are a wide range of causes of meningism; typically: viral, bacterial and endogenous (e.g. malignancy, autoimmune disease, subarachnoid haemorrhage). Prions and protozoa can also cause the disease.  
almostadoctor.co.uk
over 5 years ago
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Measles

Now relatively rare in the UK Older children have more severe disease Caused by the Morbillivirus, which is a type of paramyoxovirus This is a single stranded, enveloped RNA virus It is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system, and can be passed on by airborne transmission, via droplets expelled in coughing, sneezing and respiration.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Mumps

Background Mumps is a NOTIFIABLE DISEASE in the UK Another viral respiratory tract infection. Caused by the mumps virus. Most common in winter/spring Spread by droplet infection Not as infectious as measles    
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over 5 years ago
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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis This is the most common serious respiratory infection during infancy. It comes in winter epidemics, during which time, 2-3% of all infants are admitted to hospital each year. The primary cause is RSV – respiratory syncytial virus – which accounts for 80% of cases. In more temperate climates, the epidemics come in the ‘wet’ season  
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over 5 years ago
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Pneumonia (Children)

Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, characterised by inflammation of the lung parenchyma and production of fluid in the alveoli.   It is technically a type of bronchitis (infection of the bronchi). The highest incidence of pneumonia is during infancy. This gradually decline with age, before rising again in older age groups. In ½ of cases, no causatory organism is identified  
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over 5 years ago
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Laryngeal and Tracheal Infection

Laryngeal and tracheal infection Although sometimes referred to as synonymous as ‘Croup’ there can be many causes, croup just being the most common. It can be a very serious acute situation, as inflammation can rapidly block the upper airway.   The main features of this are: Stridor – (inspiratory wheeze) – rasping sound  
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over 5 years ago
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Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections These account for up to 80% of all RTI’s in children. They can involve the ears, nose, throat and sinuses. They are rarely serious and will not often require hospitalisation. They can become an issue when: A very young child has an RTI that causes a severely ‘blocked nose’ as this can affect feeding. This may result in hospitalisation. There are associated febrile convulsions The RTI causes an exacerbation of asthma  
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over 5 years ago
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Giardiasis

Organism Giardia lamblia Flagellate protozoan – lives in duodenum or jejunum. Incubation= 7days-3months   Transmission Faecal-oral/ from pets or birds (humans are main reservoir of infection)   Typically from drinking water contaminated with giardia cysts (killed by boiling but NOT chlorination)   Epidemiology Prevalence approx. 20-30% in developing countries  
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over 5 years ago
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Hepatitis type D, E, F G

• Detected in some HBV infections.;The antigen is found within certain HBsAg particles. • In blood, HDV (delta agent) contains delta-Ag (HDAg) surrounded by an…  
SlideShare
over 5 years ago
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Ordering and interpreting hepatitis B serology

The authors explore how doctors in primary care can identify, investigate, and refer patients with hepatitis B infection  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
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Ordering and interpreting hepatitis B serology

The authors explore how doctors in primary care can identify, investigate, and refer patients with hepatitis B infection  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago