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InfectiousDiseases

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Www.bmj
1
23

Antibiotics to promote growth in children?

Overt infections are a leading cause of death worldwide in children under 5,1 and strategies to prevent and treat infections are a cornerstone of child survival programmes. Recent assessments suggest that despite a net increase in the size of birth cohorts, the number of children dying before their fifth birthday has fallen to 6.6 million (uncertainty range 6.3-7.0 million) per year, a 45% reduction from almost 12 million deaths in 1990.2 In contrast, the fall in undernutrition has been modest at best. An estimated 165 million children under 5 were stunted in 2011 and an estimated 52 million severely wasted; almost 45% of the current burden from child mortality in under 5s can be attributed to malnutrition.3 Although many risk factors for early child mortality are well recognised, the mechanisms underlying chronic enteropathy and growth failure among children in low and middle income countries remain uncertain.4  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
22

Multisystem failure: the story of anti-influenza drugs

Last year the Cochrane team, with the help of the BMJ’s open data campaign, finally got access to full clinical study reports on neuraminidase inhibitors. Tom Jefferson and Peter Doshi explain what the new systematic review found and how a series of failures meant that decisions about these drugs were made without the full evidence  
www.bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
45

A man with a mass in the thigh

A 54 year old man presented to his general practitioner because of a fullness in his left lateral thigh that he first noticed while playing golf, although it was not related to an identifiable injury. He had a history of hypertension and fibromyalgia and was taking atenolol, ramipril, pregabalin, and tramadol but was otherwise well. The GP thought that the swelling was caused by a muscular injury, but the patient re-presented four months later because the mass had grown from a small bump to a swelling of 8 cm in diameter. It was also beginning to cause some knee stiffness but no pain. On examination he had a large firm swelling in his lateral thigh. On this occasion his GP referred him on a two week wait to the regional plastic surgery department. An ultrasound scan showed a 6 × 8 cm intramuscular mass with cystic changes and patchy neovascularity, but no inguinal or pelvic lymphadenopathy. Ultrasonography was followed by magnetic resonance imaging, with and without gadolinium contrast (fig 1⇓).  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
15

Oseltamivir: the real world data

To coincide with the publication of an updated systematic review by the Cochrane group the BMJ invited Nick Freemantle and colleagues to consider the current status of observational studies of oseltamivir and their influence on policy and practice  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
13

Tamiflu: “a nice little earner”

Is the story of oseltamivir, and similar antiviral drugs, a classic one of big pharma greed? Andrew Jack finds a more nuanced reality  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
18

Oseltamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments

Objective To describe the potential benefits and harms of oseltamivir by reviewing all clinical study reports (or similar document when no clinical study report exists) of randomised placebo controlled trials and regulatory comments (“regulatory information”).  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
20

Zanamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments

Data sources Clinical study reports, trial registries, electronic databases, regulatory archives, and correspondence with manufacturers.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
2
30

Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza

Informed choice requires comprehensive and credible information. Much of the rationale for the currently evolving movement to fully share data is to provide information for decision making, particularly in situations involving the need to balance the potential benefits and harms of medical products. This investment in data sharing is based on the premise that the value of the information from unavailable data is sufficiently meaningful to be worth the effort to make them available.1 Presumably, patients, with guidance from their doctors, might choose differently if data owners were to release all the information relevant to specific treatments and if independent scientists were able to properly analyze and communicate the results.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Static.www.bmj
1
2

The Tamiflu trials

This week sees the publication of the updated Cochrane systematic review on the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir.1 The review, which is also reported in two papers published in The BMJ,2 3 provides the most complete analysis so far of what is known from randomised trials about the effectiveness and safety of these antiviral drugs. It is also the culmination of a four and a half year battle for access to the raw data from industry funded trials of oseltamivir, a drug on which the world has spent billions of dollars.4  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
17

Tug of war for antiviral drugs data

Julia Belluz hears from both sides in the lengthy battle between the drug giants and researchers that led to the release of full clinical trial data on neuraminidase inhibitors. Does the release of these files herald a more transparent era?  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Preview
5
68

Diphtheria

 
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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0
65

HIV: Mechanisms of Action of NRTIs

This animation describes how NRTI drugs work by incorporating themselves into viral DNA as it is being transcribed, and thus, blocking further extension of t...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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0
37

HIV: Mechanisms of NRTI Resistance (Primer Nucleoside Unblocking)

This animation describes the second mechanism of resistance of reverse transcriptase enzyme to some of NRTI drugs, called primer nucleoside unblocking. Narra...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
Preview
2
72

HIV: Mechanisms of NNRTI Resistance

This animation describes how mutations acquired by the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme can effectively prevent NNRTI medicines from being able to bind to it...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
Preview
1
27

Community Medicine - Communicable diseases Part 1

The online lecture series for medical students. On demand streaming video lectures. www.mdcrack.tv Owner: MD CRACK  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
Preview
4
135

HIV Life Cycle and Drugs [UndergroundMed]

For more videos, check out our website at: http://videos.undergroundmed.net/  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
18

Quantification of risk factors for herpes zoster: population based case-control study

Participants 144 959 adults diagnosed with zoster between 2000 and 2011; 549 336 age, sex, and practice matched controls.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
24

Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment: randomised controlled trial in Ethiopia

Objectives To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months delay.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Preview
1
17

Non-publication and delayed publication of randomized trials on vaccines: survey

Objective To evaluate the extent of non-publication or delayed publication of registered randomized trials on vaccines, and to investigate potential determinants of delay to publication.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
1
19

Delayed publication of vaccine trials

Among medical interventions to improve human health, vaccination has been and remains one of the most important.1 Given the huge number of deaths from influenza pandemics in recent history, the ability to rapidly develop effective vaccines for new strains of influenza is particularly critical. Making and testing a new influenza vaccine that can be administered to the public takes six months or less.2 For example, the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza strain was first identified in April of 2009; four vaccines were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September. After the approval of a vaccine, however, important questions remain regarding dosage, effectiveness, and safety. These questions are best answered by randomized clinical trials, and getting complete results from these trials to policy makers, clinicians, and the general public in a timely manner is essential.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago