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4
97

Haemochromotosis brief overview

Haemochromatosis  Autosomal recessive  Excessive iron accumulation  0.5% of the Caucasians  Woman usually present a decade later than men due to menstrual …  
Sarah Wagstaffe
over 9 years ago
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13
311

Iron Transport: GI tract to the bloodsteam

A simple diagram, and the only way I could make sense of the way Iron is transported from the GI tract to the blood.  
Daniel Sapier
over 8 years ago
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10
476

Easy Anemia Classification: Introduction for Medical Pathology Students

A simplified introduction to anemia pathology, including iron deficiency, lead poisoning, vitamins, DNA. We classify anemias according to red blood cell size; environmental or genetic causes. Please SUBSCRIBE for new videos: More cool stuff coming as we get more users. Pathology mnemonic tutorial playlist at: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLIPkjUW-piR2HEbxFVzJ-jIH0TxcBrc_K BTW: I say "Gap6" instead of "G6PD" because there is a "gap" in the RBC membrane where a "bite" was taken out. (Mnemonic for abnormal cell morphology for this enzyme deficiency.) G6PD shows "High Loss" during a crisis, (like after eating fava beans...) but most of the time, your (asymptomatic) RBCs are just born with defective glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Visit: http://helphippo.com for archived videos, organized by topic/school year.  
HelpHippo.com
almost 6 years ago
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11
407

Iron Physiology

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twit...  
YouTube
almost 5 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1crpsox?1444774314
5
489

Neuropsychiatry's Fuzzy Borderlands

In NeuroPsychiatry it might be difficult to locate its territory, and find its niche. This might be an uneasy endeavour as its two parent branches neurology and psychiatry are still viable, also it siblings organic psychiatry, behavioural neurology and biological psychiatry are also present. This blogpost attempts to search for the definition and domains of neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatry can be defined as the 'biologic face' of mental health (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Neuropsychiatry unit). It is the neurological aspects of psychiatry and the psychiatric aspects of neurology (Pacific Neurpsychiatry Institute). It is not a new term. Many physicians used to brand themselves as neuropsychiatrists at the rise of the twentieth century. It has been looked upon with a sense of unease as a hybrid branch. Also, it was subject to pejorative connotations, as the provenance of amateurs in both parent disciplines (Lishman, 1987). The foundational claim is that 'all' mental disorders are disorders of the brain' (Berrios and Marková, 2002). The American NeuroPsychiatric Association (ANPA) defines it as 'the integrated study of psychiatric and neurologic disorders' (ANPA, 2013). The overlap between neuropsychiatry and biological psychiatry was observed (Trimble and George, 2010) as the domain of enquiry of the first and the approach of the second will meet at point. Berrios and Marková seemed to have focused on the degree of conversion among biological psychiatry, organic psychiatry, neuropsychiatry and behavioural neurology. They stated that they share the same foundational claims (FCcs): (1) mental disorder is a disorder of the brain; (2) reasons are not good enough as causes of mental disorder; and (3) biological psychiatry and its congeners have the patrimony of scientific truth. They further elaborated that the difference is primarily due to difference in historic origins. (D'haenen et al., 2002). The American Neuropsychiatric Association (ANPA) defines neuropsychiatry as the integrative study of neurological and psychiatric disorders on a clinical level, on a theoretical level; ANPA defines it as the bridge between neuroscience and clinical practice. The interrelation between both specialities is adopted by The Royal Australia and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists as it defines it as a psychiatric subspeciality. This seems to resonate the concept that 'biologisation' of psychiatry is inevitable (Sachdev and Mohan, 2013). The definition according to Gale Encyclopedia encompasses the interface between the two disciplines (Fundukian and Wilson, 2008). In order to acknowledge the wide use of the term 'neuropsychiatry'; the fourth edition of Lishman's Organic Psychiatry, appeared and it was renamed as 'textbook of neuropsychiatry'. The editor stated that the term is not used in its more restrictive sense (David, 2009). Ostow backtracked the origin of biological causes for illness to humoral view of temperament.In the nineteenth century, the differentiation between both did not seem to be apparent. The schism seems to have emerged in the twentieth century. The difficulties that arose with such early adoption of neuronal basis to psychiatric disorders are that they were based on on unsubstantiated beliefs and wild logic rather than scientific substance. (Panksepp, 2004). Folstein stated that Freud and Charcot postulated psychological and social roots for abnormal behaviours, thus differentiating neurology from psychiatry. (David, 2009). The separation may have lead to alienation of doctors on both camps and helped in creating an arbitary division in their scope of knowledge and skills. The re-emergence of interest in neurospsychiatry has been described to be due to the growing sense of discomfort in the lack of acknowledgment of brain disorders when considering psychiatric symptoms (Arciniegas and Beresford, 2001). There is considerable blurring regarding defining the territory and the boundaries of neuropsychiatry. The Royal College of Psychiatrists founded section of Neuropsychiatry in 2008. The major working groups include epilepsy, sleep disorders, brain injury and complex neurodisability. In 1987 the British NeuroPsychiatry Association was established, to address the professional need for distinction, without adopting the concept of formal affiliation with parent disciplinary bodies as the Royal College of Psychiatrists. The ANPA was founded in 1988. It issued training guide for residents. The guide included neurological and psychiatric assessments, interpretation of EEG and brain imaging techniques. With regards to the territory, it included delirium, dementia, psychosis, mood and anxiety disorders due to general medical condition. Neurpsychiatric aspects of psychopharmacologic treatments, epilepsy, neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury and stroke. The diagnosis of movement disorders, neurobehavioural disorders, demyelinating disease, intellectual and developmental disorders, as well as sleep disorders was also included. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) was established in Buenos Aires in 1974 to address the rising significance of biological psychiatry and to join local national societies together. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), is currently working on a biologically-based diagnosis, that incorporates neural circuits, cells, molecules to behavioural changes. The diagnostic system - named 'Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - is agnostic to current classification systems DSM-5 & ICD-10. Especially that the current diagnostic classficiations are mostly based on descriptive rather than neurobiological aetiological basis. (Insel et al., 2010). For example, the ICD-10 F-Code designates the first block to Organic illness, however, it seems to stop short of localisation of the cause of illness apart from the common prefix organic. It also addresses adverse drug events as tardive dyskinesia but stops short of describing it neural correlates. Also, psychosocial roots of mental illness seem to be apparent in aetiologically-based diagnoses as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, acute stress reaction, and adjustment disorders, the diagnostic cluster emphasise the necessity of having 'stress'. Other diagnoses seem to draw from the psychodynamic literature, e.g. conversion[dissociative] disorder. The need for neuropsychiatry, has been increasing as the advances in diagnostic imaging and laboratory investigations became more clinically relevant. Nowadays, there are tests as DaT-Scan that can tell the difference between neurocognitive disorder with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson's Disease. Vascular neurocognitive disorders warrant imaging as the rule rather than the exception, vascular depression has been addressed is a separate entity. Frontal Lobe Syndromes have been subdivided into orbitofrontal and dorsolateral (Moore,2008) Much training is needed to address this subspeciality. The early cases that may have stirred up the neurological roots of psychiatric disorders can be backdated to the case of Phineas Gage, and later, the case H.M. The eearlier fruits of adopting a neuropsychiatric perspective can be shown in the writings of Eliot Slater, as he attempted to search for the scientific underpinnings of psychiatry, and helped via seminal articles to highlight the organic aspect of psychiatry. Articles like 'The diagnosis of "Hysteria", where Slater, challenged the common wisdom of concepts like hysteria and conversion, rejecting the social roots of mental illness, and presenting a very strong case for the possibility of organicity, and actual cases of for which 'hysteria' was a plain misdiagnosis was way ahead of its time prior to CT Brain. Slater even challenged the mere existence of the concept of 'hysteria. (Slater, 1965) Within the same decade Alwyn Lishman published his textbook 'Organic Psychiatry' addressing the organic aspects of psychiatric disorders. Around the same time, the pioneers of social/psychological roots of mental illness became under attack. Hans Eysenck, published his book 'Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire'. Eysenck stated clearly that the case of Anna O. seems to have been mispresented and that she never had 'hysteria' and recovered she actually had 'tuberculous meningitis' and she died of its complications (Eysenck, 1986). To summarise, it seems difficult and may be futile to sharply delineate neurpsychiatry, biological psychiatry, organic psychiatry and behavioural neurology. However, it seems important to learn about the biological psychiatry as an approach and practice neuropsychiatry as a subspeciality. The territory is yet unclear from gross organic lesions as stroke to the potential of encompassing entire psychiatry as the arbitary distinction between 'functional' and 'organic' fades away. Perhaps practice will help to shape the domain of the speciality, and imaging will guide it. To date, the number of post-graduate studies are still low in comparison to the need for such speciality, much more board certification may be needed as well as the currently emerging masters and doctoral degrees. This post is previously posted on bmj doc2doc blogs Bibliography Eysenck, H.J., Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire, Pelican Series, 1986 German E Berrios, I.S.M., The concept of neuropsychiatry: A historical overview, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2002, Vol. 53, pp. 629-638 Kieran O’Driscoll, J.P.L., “No longer Gage”: an iron bar through the head, British Medical Journal, 1998, Vol. 317, pp. 1637-1638 Perminder S. Sachdev, A.M., Neuropsychiatry: Where Are We And Where Do We Go From Here?, Mens Sana Monographs, 2013, Vol. 11(1), pp. 4-15 Slater, E., The Diagnosis of "Hysteria", British Medical Journal, 1965, Vol. 5447(1), pp. 1395–1399 Thomas Insel, Bruce Cuthbert, R.H.M.G.K.Q.C.S.P.W., Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): Toward a New Classification Framework for Research on Mental Disorders, American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010, Vol. 167:7, pp. 748-751 Organic Psychiatry, Anthony S. David, Simon Fleminger, M. D. K. S. L. J. D. M. (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2009 Neuropsychiatry an introductory approach, Arciniegas & Beresford (ed.), Cambridge University Press, 2001 Biological Psychiatry, Hugo D’haenen, J.A. den Boer, P. W. (ed.), John Wiley and Sons, 2010 Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Laurie J. Fundukian, J. W. (ed.), Thomson Gale, 2008 Biological Psychiatry, M. Trimble, M. G. (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 Textbook of Neuropsychiatry, Moore, D. P. (ed.), Hodder Arnold, 2008 Textbook of Biological Psychiatry, Panksepp, J. (ed.), John Wiley and Sons, 2004 The American Neuropsychiatric Association Website www.anpaonline.org The Royal Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Unit Website http://www.neuropsychiatry.org.au/ The British Neuropsychiatry Association website www.bnpa.org.uk The Royal College of Psychiatrists website www.rcpsych.ac.uk The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry website www.wfsbp.org  
Dr Emad Sidhom
over 5 years ago
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0
38

Indications for parenteral iron therapy in pediatric ( children)

Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answ...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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0
39

Food that helps & reduces iron absorption in the body

Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answ...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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0
0

Indications for parenteral iron therapy in pediatric ( children) - YouTube

Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answ...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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0
0

Food that helps & reduces iron absorption in the body - YouTube

Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answ...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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1
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Early Iron Deficiency Damage May Be Eased By Ritalin

Ritalin may help improve brain function in adolescent rats that were iron deficient during infancy, according to a team of Penn State neuroscientists.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
20

Wi-Fi connected synthetic eyeballs complete with vintage filters are

We may now live in a world where heart cells that beat on their own are being created in labs and little boys are being fitted with bionic arms that look like those of Iron Man, but the latest foray into biotech is particularly ambitious: fully-functional synthetic eyeballs.  
independent.co.uk
over 4 years ago
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0
21

Cambodia's lucky iron fish - BBC News

A fish-shaped lump of iron could be the answer to the global problem of anaemia.  
bbc.co.uk
over 4 years ago
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0
11

Why an iron fish can make you stronger - BBC News

Could an iron fish, made out of recycled car parts and put into the cooking pot, be a solution to the world's iron deficiency problems?  
bbc.co.uk
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
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Iron deficiency may lead to false diagnosis of diabetes

Anaemia can lead to a false diagnosis of diabetes by distorting readings of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations, concludes a systematic review of the evidence published in Diabetologia.1  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
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Management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease: summary of updated NICE guidance

Various factors—including deficiency of erythropoietin, iron, folate, or vitamin B12; blood loss; infection; and inflammation—contribute to the development of the anaemia of chronic kidney disease  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
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0
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Powders of iron plus other micronutrients for home (point-of-use) fortification of foods consumed by pregnant women | Cochrane

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to nutrient deficiencies due to the requirements of the growing baby during the pregnancy. In low-income countries, many women have diets with low content of vitamins and minerals, and they participate in long hours of physical labour. They are also exposed to recurrent infections, which make nutritional deficiencies worse. Thus, lack of adequate nutrition can contribute to the poor health of these women their babies.  
cochrane.org
over 4 years ago
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Effect of administration of antihelminthic for soil-transmitted helminths during pregnancy | Cochrane

Intestinal worms (helminths) contribute to iron-deficiency anaemia as they feed on blood and cause further bleeding by releasing anticoagulant compounds. They also affect the supply of nutrients and cause anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. Pregnancy complicated by maternal hookworm infection poses a serious threat to the health of mothers and their babies, especially in developing countries. Women who are anaemic during pregnancy are more likely to have ill health, give birth prematurely, and have low birthweight babies with low iron reserves. Antihelminthic drugs are highly effective and have minimal side-effects but information on their use during pregnancy is limited. The major concern is that the drugs may cause malformation of the fetus (teratogenic effects). We examined the research published up to 31 January 2015 on the impact of giving a single antihelminthic treatment in the second trimester of pregnancy on maternal anaemia and pregnancy outcomes.  
cochrane.org
over 4 years ago
12
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Lab Case 65 – Interpretation

So far, all the investigations in this lady have failed to reveal a cause for iron defiency and the elevated Ferritin was thought to be an acute phase reactant  
emergucate.com
over 4 years ago
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Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron + folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy | Cochrane

During pregnancy, women need iron and folate to meet both their own needs and those of the developing baby. The concern is that if pregnant women become deficient in these nutrients they are unable to supply them in sufficient quantities to their baby. Low folate nutrition before conceiving increases the risk of the baby having neural tube defects. Low iron and folate levels in women can cause anaemia, which can make women tired, faint, and at increased risk of infection.  
cochrane.org
over 4 years ago
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Flattering 5 “Diy” Hair Styles With A Perfect Flat Iron

Get a frizz-free and lustrous straight tresses, by just opting a right flat iron for yourself. Although there is plenty of hair iron available in markets and on the internet, but girls often get baffled that which one is just right for their strands. So, if you too planning to buy the same to make your tresses flaunt, then you are on the right page. When it comes to buying a straightener for yourself, ceramic plate flat iron is on top of the list. It’s a versatile equipment which makes you emerge as if you just came out of the salon with an ideal look. Well, now that you bought a branded flat iron, you must be aware of the exact features and benefits of it.  
googleblog.kinja.com
over 4 years ago