New to Meducation?
Sign up
Already signed up? Log In
view moderators

MetabolicDiseases

Category

0
11
188

Hypercalcemia

A potentiallylife-threatening electrolyte problem that commonly finds its way into the ICU as well as on exams.  
Jeffrey S. Guy, MD, FACS
almost 9 years ago
30093
0
27

Hypocalcaemia

A video tutorial with a mini case format outlining the basic science behind calcium regulation and the pathophysiology of hypocalcaemia.  
Podmedics
almost 8 years ago
Preview
1
42

A Case Report: X-linked Dominant Protoporphyria

This narrated case report illustrates this newly discovered porphyria and also provides some background medical education to the porphyrias as a whole.  
Matthew Seager
about 7 years ago
Preview
2
185

A Short Presentation on Hypercalcaemia

A simple presentation based on a real life case study. Covers the role of calcium, calcium homeostasis, hyercalcaemia & hyperparathyroidism.  
Laura Wills
over 6 years ago
Preview
5
82

Hypercalcaemia and Hypercalciuria Slide Show

Covers the diagnostic pathway, clinical features and treatment options.  
Mr Jamie Dunn
over 5 years ago
Preview
1
56

Oncologic Emergencies: Hypercalcemia

Explanation of the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia in cancer patients, and a description of common signs and symptoms. Includes a quick overview of common t...  
YouTube
about 5 years ago
Preview
1
37

Internal medicine on Instagram: “Systemic AL amyloidosis - macroglossia An enlarged tongue is present in this patient with systemic amyloidosis.”

“Systemic AL amyloidosis - macroglossia An enlarged tongue is present in this patient with systemic amyloidosis.”  
Instagram
about 5 years ago
Preview
3
66

Exercise-associated hyponatremia in marathon runners: a two-year experience

This study was conducted to better define the pathophysiology, risk factors, and therapeutic approach to exercise-associated hyponatremia. Medical records from all participants in the 1998 Suzuki Rock ‘N’ Roll Marathon® who presented to 14 Emergency Departments (EDs) were retrospectively reviewed to identify risk factors for the development of hyponatremia. Hyponatremic patients were compared to other runners with regard to race time and to other marathon participants seen in the ED with regard to gender, clinical signs of dehydration, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An original treatment algorithm incorporating the early use of hypertonic saline (HTS) was evaluated prospectively in our own ED for participants in the 1999 marathon to evaluate improvements in sodium correction rate and incidence of complications. A total of 26 patients from the 1998 and 1999 marathons were hyponatremic [serum sodium (SNa) ≤135 mEq/L] including 15 with severe hyponatremia (SNa ≤ 125 mEq/L). Three developed seizures and required intubation and admission to an intensive care unit. Hyponatremic patients were more likely to be female, use NSAIDS, and have slower finishing times. Hyponatremic runners reported drinking “as much as possible” during and after the race and were less likely to have clinical signs of dehydration. An inverse relationship between initial SNa and time of presentation was observed, with late presentation predicting lower SNa values. The use of HTS in selected 1999 patients resulted in faster SNa correction times and fewer complications than observed for 1998 patients. It is concluded that the development of exercise-associated hyponatremia is associated with excessive fluid consumption during and after extreme athletic events. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and NSAID use. The use of HTS in selected patients seems to be safe and efficacious.  
sciencedirect.com
about 5 years ago
Preview
2
81

Oncologic Emergencies: Hypercalcemia

Explanation of the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia in cancer patients, and a description of common signs and symptoms. Includes a quick overview of common t...  
YouTube
almost 5 years ago
Preview
1
58

Metabolic Acidosis. Read about Metabolic acidosis. | Patient

Metabolic acidosis is defined as an arterial blood pH <7.35 with plasma bicarbonate <22 mmol/L. Learn about Metabolic acidosis on Metabolic acidosis page  
Patient.co.uk
over 4 years ago
Preview
1
25

Metabolic Alkalosis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Chloride-Responsive Alkalosis, Chloride-Resistant Metabolic Alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis is a primary increase in serum bicarbonate (HCO3 -) concentration. This occurs as a consequence of a loss of H+ from the body or a gain in HCO3 -.  
emedicine.medscape.com
over 4 years ago
Preview
1
19

Hyperkalaemia. Potassium excess, treatment of hyperkalaemia. | Patient

Hyperkalaemia is defined as plasma potassium in excess of 5.5 mmol/L. [ 31969 : Renal Association Treatment of Acute Hyperkalaemia in Adults (2012) ] The...  
Patient.co.uk
over 4 years ago
3
0
439

Why does hypocalcaemia cause tetany?

I have never understood why hypocalcaemia causes tetany. Could someone help me with this please?  
Greg Thompson
over 6 years ago
0
0
4185

What is the effect of hypocalcemia on conduction of nerve impulse at a chemical synapse?

The reference given when answering the question about the increase in permeability of sodium ions during hypocalcemia is satisfactory but "does hypocalcemia not reduce the release of neurotransmitters at a chemical synapse" Will it not affect the speed and efficiency of conduction of impulse. Therefore how will it cause tetany?" Reference Increased Permeability of the Sodium Channels When There Is a Deficit of Calcium Ions. The concentration of calcium ions in the extracellular fluid also has a profound effect on the voltage level at which the sodium channels become activated. When there is a deficit of calcium ions, the sodium channels become activated (opened) by very little increase of the membrane potential from its normal, very negative level. Therefore, the nerve fiber becomes highly excitable, sometimes discharging repetitively without provocation rather than remaining in the resting state. In fact, the calcium ion concentration needs to fall only 50 per cent below normal before spontaneous discharge occurs in some peripheral nerves, often causing muscle “tetany.”This is sometimes lethal because of tetanic contraction of the respiratory muscles. The probable way in which calcium ions affect the sodium channels is as follows:These ions appear to bind to the exterior surfaces of the sodium channel protein molecule. The positive charges of these calcium ions in turn alter the electrical state of the channel protein itself, in this way altering the voltage level required to open the sodium gate. From: Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology / Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall.—11th ed.  
Utkarsh Bansal
over 6 years ago
4
0
31

Hypocalcemia and Hypomagnesemia

Why is hypocalcemia always associated with hypomagnesemia, and unresponding hypocalcemia will responde to magnesium correction if so whats the connection behind it?  
sampath kumar
about 6 years ago
4
0
59

How do thiazides cause hypercalcaemia?

I was discussing with a renal consultant the reasons for avoiding thiazides in patients with sarcoidosis with renal involvement. I think it is well established that they can cause hypercalcaemia but after (not very much) searching on the internet and in textbooks I can't seem to find out why? Does anybody know?  
Amy Huxtable
over 5 years ago
Preview
0
13

Restoring cellular energy signals may treat mitochondrial diseases in humans

Rooted in malfunctions in the tiny power plants that energize our cells, mitochondrial disorders are notoriously complex and variable, with few effective treatments.  
medicalnewstoday.com
about 4 years ago
Preview
0
11

First successful vaccination against 'mad cow'-like wasting disease in deer

Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center and elsewhere say that a vaccination they have developed to fight a brain-based, wasting syndrome among deer and other animals may hold promise on two...  
medicalnewstoday.com
about 4 years ago
Preview
0
15

Restless Legs Syndrome Linked To Earlier Death Risk In Men

Higher overall mortality in men with RLS was independent of known risk factors, and more frequently tied to immune disorders, and respiratory, endocrine, and metabolic diseases.  
medicalnewstoday.com
about 4 years ago
Preview
0
475

A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - American Family Physician

Hypercalcemia is a disorder commonly encountered by primary care physicians. The diagnosis often is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Clinical manifestations affect the neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, renal, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. The most common causes of hypercalcemia are primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Some other important causes of hypercalcemia are medications and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. An initial diagnostic work-up should include measurement of intact parathyroid hormone, and any medications that are likely to be causative should be discontinued. Parathyroid hormone is suppressed in malignancy-associated hypercalcemia and elevated in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is essential to exclude other causes before considering parathyroid surgery, and patients should be referred for parathyroidectomy only if they meet certain criteria. Many patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have a benign course and do not need surgery. Hypercalcemic crisis is a life-threatening emergency. Aggressive intravenous rehydration is the mainstay of management in severe hypercalcemia, and antiresorptive agents, such as calcitonin and bisphosphonates, frequently can alleviate the clinical manifestations of hypercalcemic disorders.  
aafp.org
about 4 years ago