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86

The Precise Neurological Exam

Ptosis is the lagging of an eyelid. It has 2 distinct etiologies. Sympathetics going to the eye innervate Muller's muscle, a small muscle that elevates the eyelid. The III cranial nerve also innervates a much larger muscle that elevates the eye lid: the levator palpebrae. Thus, disruption of either will cause ptosis. The ptosis from a III nerve palsy is of greater severity than the ptosis due to a lesion of the sympathetic pathway, due to the size of the muscles innervated. As an aside, the parasympathetics run with the III cranial nerve and are usually affected with an abnormal III cranial nerve.  
informatics.med.nyu.edu
almost 6 years ago
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48

Basic Respiratory Physiology

Inspiration is an active process, but normal expiration is a passive process. Forced expiration recruits the abdominal muscles to help force out air.   Muscles of breathing Diaphragm – this is the main muscle of inspiration. It flattens out. During normal quiet breathing it is only really the diaphragm that does any work (other muscles are often not involved). It is controlled by the phrenic nerve which has nerve roots in C3-5.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 6 years ago
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68

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a non-specific muscular disorder of unknown origin. It primarily affects insertions of tendons and associated soft tissues and presents with dull aching pains. It is much more common in women.  Epidemiology and Aetiology Cause is unknown Affects muscles rather than joints – although can often feel like joint pain Peak age of onset: 40-50 years M:F ratio 1:9  Pathology  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 6 years ago
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88

ANATOMY; MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER & UPPER ARM by Professor Fink

This is Part 3 of 5 Video Lectures on the Skeletal Muscle Groups of the Human Body by Professor Fink. In this Video Lecture, Professor Fink describes the Mus...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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21

ANATOMY; MUSCLES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN; SPLENIUS, ABDOMINAL & ERECTOR SPINAE by Professor Fink

This is Part 2 of 5 Video Lectures on the Skeletal Muscle Groups of the Human Body by Professor Fink. In this Video Lecture, Professor Fink describes the Mus...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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56

Larynx Anatomy (4 of 5): Muscles - Head and Neck Anatomy 101

We've had a great response to our last set of videos so far, so we're thrilled that some of you are finding them helpful! One of the first year dental studen...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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110

Anatomical dissection #22: Shoulder & arm muscles.

Disección anatómica # 22: Los músculos del hombro y del brazo.  
YouTube
about 5 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 qo3u6t?1444774095
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916

Prostate and Bladder Cancer Staging and Grading - A review for students

Amended from Wikipedia and other sources T.I Lemon Stage means spread Grade means histology Prostate cancer staging – spread of the cancer There are two schemes commonly used to stage prostate cancer. TMN and Whitmore Jewett Stage I disease is cancer that is found incidentally in a small part of the sample when prostate tissue was removed for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hypertrophy, and the cells closely resemble normal cells and the gland feels normal to the examining finger Stage II more of the prostate is involved and a lump can be felt within the gland. Stage III, the tumour has spread through the prostatic capsule and the lump can be felt on the surface of the gland. In Stage IV disease, the tumour has invaded nearby structures, or has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. Grading - Gleason Grading System is based on cellular content and tissue architecture from biopsies, which provides an estimate of the destructive potential and ultimate prognosis of the disease. TX: cannot evaluate the primary tumor T0: no evidence of tumor T1: tumor present, but not detectable clinically or with imaging • T1a: tumor was incidentally found in less than 5% of prostate tissue resected (for other reasons) • T1b: tumor was incidentally found in greater than 5% of prostate tissue resected • T1c: tumor was found in a needle biopsy performed due to an elevated serum PSA T2: the tumor can be felt (palpated) on examination, but has not spread outside the prostate • T2a: the tumor is in half or less than half of one of the prostate gland's two lobes • T2b: the tumor is in more than half of one lobe, but not both • T2c: the tumor is in both lobes but within the prostatic capsule • T3: the tumor has spread through the prostatic capsule (if it is only part-way through, it is still T2) • T3a: the tumor has spread through the capsule on one or both sides • T3b: the tumor has invaded one or both seminal vesicles • T4: the tumor has invaded other nearby structures It should be stressed that the designation "T2c" implies a tumor which is palpable in both lobes of the prostate. Tumors which are found to be bilateral on biopsy only but which are not palpable bilaterally should not be staged as T2c. Evaluation of the regional lymph nodes ('N') NX: cannot evaluate the regional lymph nodes • N0: there has been no spread to the regional lymph nodes • N1: there has been spread to the regional lymph nodes Evaluation of distant metastasis ('M') • MX: cannot evaluate distant metastasis • M0: there is no distant metastasis • M1: there is distant metastasis • M1a: the cancer has spread to lymph nodes beyond the regional ones • M1b: the cancer has spread to bone • M1c: the cancer has spread to other sites (regardless of bone involvement) Evaluation of the histologic grade ('G') Usually, the grade of the cancer (how different the tissue is from normal tissue) is evaluated separately from the stage; however, for prostate cancer, grade information is used in conjunction with TNM status to group cases into four overall stages. • GX: cannot assess grade • G1: the tumor closely resembles normal tissue (Gleason 2–4) • G2: the tumor somewhat resembles normal tissue (Gleason 5–6) • G3–4: the tumor resembles normal tissue barely or not at all (Gleason 7–10) Of note, this system of describing tumors as "well-", "moderately-", and "poorly-" differentiated based on Gleason score of 2-4, 5-6, and 7-10, respectively, persists in SEER and other databases but is generally outdated. In recent years pathologists rarely assign a tumor a grade less than 3, particularly in biopsy tissue. A more contemporary consideration of Gleason grade is: • Gleason 3+3: tumor is low grade (favorable prognosis) • Gleason 3+4 / 3+5: tumor is mostly low grade with some high grade • Gleason 4+3 / 5+3: tumor is mostly high grade with some low grade • Gleason 4+4 / 4+5 / 5+4 / 5+5: tumor is all high grade Note that under current guidelines, if any Pattern 5 is present it is included in final score, regardless of the percentage of the tissue having this pattern, as the presence of any pattern 5 is considered to be a poor prognostic marker. Overall staging The tumor, lymph node, metastasis, and grade status can be combined into four stages of worsening severity. Stage Tumor Nodes Metastasis Grade Stage I T1a N0 M0 G1 Stage II T1a N0 M0 G2–4 T1b N0 M0 Any G T1c N0 M0 Any G T1 N0 M0 Any G T2 N0 M0 Any G Stage III T3 N0 M0 Any G Stage IV T4 N0 M0 Any G Any T N1 M0 Any G Any T Any N M1 Any G Bladder T (Primary tumour) • TX Primary tumour cannot be assessed • T0 No evidence of primary tumour • Ta Non-invasive papillary carcinoma • Tis Carcinoma in situ (‘flat tumour’) • T1 Tumour invades subepithelial connective tissue • T2a Tumour invades superficial muscle (inner half) • T2b Tumour invades deep muscle (outer half) • T3 Tumour invades perivesical tissue: • T3a Microscopically • T3b Macroscopically (extravesical mass) • T4a Tumour invades prostate, uterus or vagina • T4b Tumour invades pelvic wall or abdominal wall N (Lymph nodes) • NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed • N0 No regional lymph node metastasis • N1 Metastasis in a single lymph node 2 cm or less in greatest dimension • N2 Metastasis in a single lymph node more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension,or multiple lymph nodes, none more than 5 cm in greatest dimension • N3 Metastasis in a lymph node more than 5 cm in greatest dimension M (Distant metastasis) • MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed • M0 No distant metastasis • M1 Distant metastasis. Grade Urothelial papilloma – non cancerous (benign) tumour •Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) – very slow growing and unlikely to spread •Low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma – slow growing and unlikely to spread •High grade papillary urothelial carcinoma – more quickly growing and more likely to spread  
Thomas Lemon
over 6 years ago
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Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Mnemonics | IMnotebook.com

> Myocardial infarct, complications ABCDE x2 Arrhythmias / AneurysmBradycardia / ↓BPCardiac failure / cardiac tamponadeDresslers / Death!Embolism / Extra (VSD, pap muscle rupture)   
imnotebook.com
over 4 years ago
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230

Forearm Muscles | Flashcard Anatomy

Forearm muscles anatomy flashcard. Check out the 3D app at http://AnatomyLearning.com. More videos available on http://AnatomyZone.com. Use this brief flashc...  
youtube.com
over 4 years ago
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85

Patellar Tracking Disorder

Patellar Tracking Disorder Overview Misalignment Muscle imbalance Ligament damage Symptoms Treatment  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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303

Histology Part I Intro. & Epithelium

Tutorial on Human Histology and Epithelium Table of Contents: 00:00 - WinnacunnetAnatomy and Physiology 00:09 - Human Tissues 01:12 - I. EPITHELIUM 02:47 - 2. Covering and Lining 03:30 - 03:40 - 05:27 - 07:29 - 07:56 - 09:40 - 10:32 - II. MUSCLE Tissue  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 6 years ago
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44

Compartment Syndrome

This is a syndrome that results from swelling of a muscle. The muscle is retained in its fixed volume fascia, however, and thus the swelling of the muscle causes occlusion of the blood supply. this can result in infarction, and can cause an ischaemic contraction known as Volkmann’s Ischaemic Contracture.   It typically occurs in the forearm and calf, but can also occur in the thigh and foot.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 6 years ago
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93

Lung Compliance and Elastance

Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.  
HubPages
almost 6 years ago
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Ophthalmology Lecture - Eye Anatomy Part 3

http://www.ophthobook.com This lecture covers the retina, optic nerve, eye muscles, and the orbital bones. This was excerpted from the complete anatomy lectu...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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Wrist Extension from Flexion

http://www.kinesiologyprep.com - In this video, the action of controlling the extension of the wrist from a fully flexed position is an eccentric muscle cont...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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107 A Review Of The Anterior Forearm

http://www.interactive-biology.com/107 - In this video, I go over the content I covered in the last 2 videos. I basically review the muscles, innervation and...  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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206

Muscles of the Lower Leg

Muscles of the Lower Leg by Dr. Fabian  
YouTube
over 5 years ago