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The Bell Curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life is a 1994 book by American psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein (who died before the book was released) and American political scientist Charles Murray. Herrnstein and Murray's central argument is that human intelligence is substantially influenced by both inherited and environmental factors and is a better predictor of many personal dynamics, including financial income, job performance, birth out of wedlock, and involvement in crime than are an individual's parental socioeconomic status, or education level. They also argue that those with high intelligence, the "cognitive elite", are becoming separated from those of average and below-average intelligence.  
en.wikipedia.org
over 4 years ago
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Hans Selye: Birth of Stress- what is stress? | The American Institute of Stress

Hans Selye: Birth of Stress « The American Institute of Stress  
stress.org
over 4 years ago
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Mechanism of labour

When negotiating the birth canal the fetus undergoes a series of manoeuvres. As the fetus descends through the different planes of the pelvis it needs to move into the position of best fit.  
stratog.rcog.org.uk
over 4 years ago
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Isaac Bashevis Singer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Isaac Bashevis Singer (Yiddish: יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער‎; November 21, 1902 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish-born Jewish author in Yiddish,[1] awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.[2] The Polish form of his birth name was Icek Hersz Zynger.[3] He used his mother's first name in an initial literary pseudonym, Izaak Baszewis, which he later expanded to the form under which he is now known.[4] He was a leading figure in the Yiddish literary movement, writing and publishing only in Yiddish. He also was awarded two U.S. National Book Awards, one in Children's Literature for his memoir A Day Of Pleasure: Stories of a Boy Growing Up in Warsaw (1970)[5] and one in Fiction for his collection, A Crown of Feathers and Other Stories (1974).[6]  
en.wikipedia.org
over 4 years ago
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Vomiting in the Young Child: Nothing or Nightmare

In children with malrotation, 50% present within the first month of life, with the majority occurring in the first week after birth. Approximately 90% of children with malrotation with volvulus will present by one year of age.   This is a pre-verbal child’s disease – which makes it even more of a challenge to recognize quickly.  
pemplaybook.org
over 4 years ago
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Psychology History

Harry F. Harlow was an American Psychologist who provided a new understanding of human behavior and development through studies of social behavior of monkeys. His research contributions (in the areas of learning, motivation, and affection) have major relevance for general and child psychology. Harlow obtained both his BA and PhD in Psychology from Stanford University. Upon completion of his PhD, Harlow joined the psychology staff at the University of Wisconsin (Madison). He was a modest, brilliant man who enjoyed spending time with students and took special pride in teaching introductory psychology courses. Nearly forty students obtained their PhD under his direction. Professor Harlow's research developed an abundant supply of primate learning tests and tasks that became standards in the field. In general, Harlow wanted to prove to the psychology community that primate research could contribute to the understanding of important clinical issues without having to be molecular in nature. His theory hinged on the universal need for contact. Harlow's famous wire/cloth "mother" monkey studies demonstrated that the need for affection created a stronger bond between mother and infant than did physical needs (food). Harlow was a member several Science and Psychological Associations, including the American Psychological Association, National Academy of Arts & Sciences, and Sigma Xi. He was a national lecturer and also a consultant to the Army's Scientific Advisory Panel. During his career, he was recognized with several distinctions, including: Howard Crosby Warren Medal (1956), National Medal of Science (1967), and Gold Medal from American Psychological Foundation (1973). Much of his primate research regarding social separation, affection, attachment, love, learning, and early life behaviors was published. Harlow died in 1981, at the age of 75. His life work provided a developmental framework based on data results rather than convoluted theories with limited empirical support. Theory In Harlow's initial experiments, infant monkeys were separated from their mothers [visit this site] at six to twelve hours after birth and were raised instead with substitute or "surrogate" mothers made either of heavy wire mesh or of wood covered with cloth. Both mothers were the same size, but the wire mother had no soft surfaces while the other mother was cuddly – covered with foam rubber and soft terry cloth. Both mothers were also warmed by an electric light placed inside them. In one experiment both types of surrogates were present in the cage, but only one was equipped with a nipple from which the infant could nurse. Some infants received nourishment from the wire mother, and others were fed from the cloth mother. Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment (and a source of warmth provided by the electric light), the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth surrogate. These results led researchers to believe the need for closeness and affection goes deeper than a need for warmth. These monkeys raised by the dummy mothers engaged in strange behavioral patterns later in their adult life. Some sat clutching themselves, rocking constantly back and forth; a stereotypical behavior pattern for excessive and misdirected aggression. Normal sexual behaviors were replaced my misdirected and atypical patterns: isolate females ignored approaching normal males, while isolate males made inaccurate attempts to copulate with normal females. As parents, these isolate female monkeys (the "motherless mothers" as Harlow called them) were either negligent or abusive. Negligent mothers did not nurse, comfort, or protect their young, nor did they harm them. The abusive mothers violently bit or otherwise injured their babies, to the point that many of them died. Deprivation of emotional bonds to live mother monkeys (as infant monkeys) these (now adult) monkeys were unable to create a secure attachment with their own offspring. (Principles of General Psychology, 1980, John Wiley and Sons). Harlow's research suggested the importance of mother/child bonding. Not only does the child look to his/her mother for basic needs such as food, safety, and warmth, but he also needs to feel love, acceptance, and affection from the caregiver. His findings show some long-term psychological physical effects of delinquent or inadequate attentiveness to child needs. Harlow also did learning research with his monkeys. His theory, "Learning to Learn", described the ability of animals to slowly learn a general rule that could then be applied to rapidly solve new problem sets. Harlow presented the monkey with two stimuli (a red block and a thimble, for example); one was predetermined "correct" and reinforced with food (red block) and the other was "incorrect" and not reinforced with food (thimble). After each selection, the objects were replaced and the monkey again chose a stimulus. Each trial reinforced the same stimulus (red block). The monkey had a 50% chance of being "correct" on each trial, however, he could increase his chances by adopting the win-stay, lose-shiftstrategy. For example, if the monkey chose the thimble and was not reinforced, he should shift to the red block for the reinforcer. If, however, he correctly selected the red block and was reinforced, he should stay with the reinforced stimulus and choose the same stimulus next time. The monkey continued throughout a series of six trials with eight pairs of stimuli (learning sets). Harlow found the monkeys to be averaging approximately 75% correct responses by the sixth trial of the eighth set. He then began to look at the animal's behavior during the second trial. He found the monkeys to implement the stay or shift strategy on the second trial of the six-trial set, which means the animals did not relearn the strategy with each new stimuli set, they instead applied the rule they had already learned. After 250-plus trials, the monkeys were about 98% correct on the second through the sixth trials with each new stimuli set. Harlow's learning research demonstrates that animals, like humans, are able to learn to apply strategies or rules to situations to help them solve problems. Time Line Born October 31 in Fairfield, Iowa Son of Lon and Mabel (Rock) Israel 30-44 Staff, University of Wisconsin at Madison; Married Clara Mears 39-40 * Carnegie Fellow of Anthropology at Columbia University 44-74 George Cary Comstock Research Professor of Psychology 46 Divorced Clara Mears; Married Margaret Kuenne 47-48 President, Midwestern Psychological Association 50-51 President of Division of Experimental Psychology, American Psychological Association 50-52 Head of Human Resources Research Branch of Department of Army 53-55 Head of Division of Anthropology and Psychology of National Research Council 56 * Howard Crosby Warren Medal 56-74 Director of Primate Lab, University of Wisconsin 58-59 President, American Psychological Association 59,65 Sigma Xi National Lecturer 1960 * Distinguished Psychologist Award, APA / Messenger Lecturer at Cornell University 61-71 Director of Regional Primate Research Center 64-65 President of Division of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, APA 67 * National Medal of Science 1970 Margaret (wife) died 71 Harris Lecturer at Northwestern University / Remarried Clara Mears, Children: 3 Sons, 1 Daughter 72 Martin Rehfuss Lecturer at Jefferson Medical College / * Gold Medal from American Psychological Foundation / * Annual Award from Society for the Scientific Study of Sex 74 University of Arizona (Tucson) Honorary Research Professor of Psychology 75 * Von Gieson Award from New York State Psychiatric Institute 76 * International Award from Kittay Scientific Foundation Also Member of the following (dates not given): Consultant to Army Scientific Advisory Pannel; American Philosophical Society; National Academy of Sciences; National Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Sigma Xi ; Phi Kappa Phi 1981 Died * Denotes Awards and Honors Bibliography Harlow, H. F.; Zimmermann, Robert. Affectional responses in the infant monkey. Foundations of animal Behavior. (1996), xvi, 843, 376-387. Harlow, H., et al. Social rehabilitation of separation-induced depressive disorders in monkeys. American Journal of Psychiatry. (1976), v. 133(11), 1279-1285. Harlow, H., et al. Effects of maternal and peer separations on young monkeys. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines. (1976), v. 17(2), 101-112. Harlow, H. Lust, latency and love: Simian secrets of successful sex. Journal of Sex Research. (1975), v. 11(2), 79-90. Harlow, H. A variable-temperature surrogate mother for studying attachment in infant monkeys. Behavior Research Methods. (1973), v. 5(3), 269-272. Harlow, H., et al. The sad ones: Studies in depression. Psychology Today. (1971), v. 4(12), 61-63. Harlow, H., et al. Nature of love: Simplified. American Psychologist. (1970), v. 25(2), 161-168. [History Home Page] [Psychology Department Home Page]  
muskingum.edu
over 4 years ago
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Acquired Immunity

Acquired (adaptive or specific) immunity is not present at birth. It is learned. As a person’s immune system encounters foreign substances (antigens), the components of acquired immunity learn the best way to attack each antigen and begin to develop a memory for that antigen. Acquired immunity is also called specific immunity because it tailors its attack to a specific antigen previously encountered. Its hallmarks are its ability to learn, adapt, and remember.  
merckmanuals.com
over 4 years ago
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What would John Snow make of epidemiology today?

Suzi Gage: Today is the bicentenary of the birth of John Snow, the physician who worked out how cholera is transmitted. He is often called the father of epidemiology, but would he recognise the field today?  
theguardian.com
over 4 years ago
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Reproductive health - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.[1] Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.  
en.wikipedia.org
about 4 years ago
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Interesting Facts: Why Do We Celebrate the 4th of July?

So this week, Americans are celebrating the birth of our nation by gorging ourselves on hot dogs and watching things explode. It's pretty close to how the Fo...  
youtube.com
about 4 years ago
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MONTESSORI FAQ's

Q. Where did Montessori come from? A. Montessori (pronounced MON-tuh-SORE-ee) education was founded in 1907 by Dr. Maria Montessori, the first woman in Italy to become a physician. She based her educational methods on scientific observation of children's learning processes. Guided by her discovery that children teach themselves, Dr. Montessori designed a "prepared environment" in which children could freely choose from a number of developmentally appropriate activities. Now, nearly a century after Maria Montessori's first casa dei bambini ("children's house") in Rome, Montessori education is found all over the world, spanning ages from birth to adolescence.  
michaelolaf.net
about 4 years ago
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Montessori Explanation, and Toys & Materials for Children from birth to 12 years

An introduction to Montessori philosophy in all its aspects. Help for parents of children from birth to three, and parents and teachers of children from three to twelve years of age. Montessori materials, montessori toys, montessori.  
michaelolaf.net
about 4 years ago
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Birth order - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Birth order refers to the order a child is born, for example first born, second born etc. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development. This assertion has been repeatedly challenged;[1] the largest multi-study research suggests zero or near-zero effects.[2] Birth-order theory has the characteristics of a zombie theory,[3] as despite disconfirmation,[2] it continues to have a strong presence in pop psychology and popular culture.[4][5]  
en.wikipedia.org
about 4 years ago
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Pregnant at 65: Miracle of medicine - BBC News

Annegret Raunigk, 65, is reportedly due to give birth to quadruplets. How is that medically possible?  
bbc.co.uk
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Mother is awarded £13m compensation after mistakes at births of two children

Two siblings have won £13m (€18m; $19.2m) in compensation for mistakes made at their births in the same UK hospital 17 months apart that left them both needing lifelong care.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Lifestyle changes or metformin reduce type 2 diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes, US study shows

Women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes for years after giving birth, but intensive lifestyle changes or metformin therapy reduce this risk by more than a third, a US study has found.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Bias in observational study designs: case-control studies

Researchers investigated the association between sun exposure and risk of multiple sclerosis. A population based case-control study was performed. The participants were recruited from residents of Tasmania, Australia, who were aged under 60 years and had at least one grandparent born in Tasmania. Cases were people with multiple sclerosis who volunteered after information evenings at local multiple sclerosis societies, or after having been invited by a healthcare professional. In total, 136 people with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, as defined by clinical and magnetic resonance imaging criteria, were included as cases. For each case, two controls matched for sex and year of birth were randomly selected from the community. In total, 359 eligible controls were approached and the response rate was 76%.1  
feeds.bmj.com
over 5 years ago
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Free birth control reduces teen pregnancies and abortions

Teens who received free contraception and were educated about the pros and cons of various birth control methods were dramatically less likely to get pregnant, give birth or get an abortion...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 5 years ago
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Pregnancies affected by 9/11 dust cloud

Pregnant women living near the World Trade Center during 9/11 experienced higher-than-normal negative birth outcomes, according to a new working paper by Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 5 years ago
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Decline in heart health can start in childhood

Your heart health, which is optimal for most of us at birth, can decline substantially with unhealthy childhood behaviors, according to research in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 5 years ago