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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Epidemiology and Aetiology More common in women Typical presentation at age 30-50 Associated with gout, pregnancy, the pill, premenstrual state, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, acromegaly, obesity, amyloidosis Some believe that jobs that involve repetitive flexing of the wrist may be involved.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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98

Gestational Diabetes and Diabetes in Pregnancy

Resistance to insulin is a normal physiological response in pregnancy, thought to be induced by maternal hormones.  However, in some women, this is severe enough to result in gestational diabetes. In these women, there is reduced ability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance.   Gestation diabetes is defined as - Any hyperglycaemia with first onset or presentation during pregnancy    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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27

Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are different stages of the same condition. Pre-eclampsia can result in eclampsia at any time. Eclampsia is immediately life-threatening and often symptomatic.   Pre-eclampsia is a condition characterised by increased blood pressure, proteinuria and often oedema during pregnancy. It is typically asymptomatic, and occurs after 20 weeks, although it rarely presents before 32 weeks – but when it does, it is associated with a worse prognosis.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Normal Physiology of Pregnancy

In pregnancy almost all of the mother’s organ systems need to adapt, and several factors, such as age, ethnicity, and genetic factors all affect how well she adapts to being pregnant. There are four reasons why the mother’s body needs to adapt.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Booking, Screening & Antenatal Care

Much of the follow-up of pregnant women is carried out in the community, by midwifes at primary health care centres. The risk of death from pregnancy in the UK is roughly 1 in 20 000. Antenatal care is as much about educating women about pregnancy, childbirth and child care, as it is about providing for actual medical needs, particularly in the case of a first pregnancy. The exact measures will differ between NHS trusts, but below is a general outline of the type of care provided in pregnancy.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Ectopic Pregnancy

 Definition Implantation of conceptious outside uterine cavity When Women in reproductive age present with pelvic pain and positive pregnancy test à Ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise   Incidence 20:1000 pregnancies Increasing from 11:1000 pregnancies  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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130

Stages of Labour & Normal Delivery

What is a ‘normal delivery’? Normal time of delivery is between 38 and 41 weeks since the LMP (which is between 36 and 39 weeks gestation) Approx 70% of all babies are born at this gestation, and 80% within 1 month of the predicted date  
almostadoctor - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Physiological Changes of the Heart at Birth

Fetal circulation The fetus receives blood via the umbilical vein. Once this enters the body, it travels through the liver as the ductus venosus before joining the inferior vena cava. It allows 80% of fetal blood to bypass the liver on return from the placenta. It closes functionally within minutes of birth, and structurally within a couple of weeks (may take longer in pre-term babies) Becomes the ligamentus venosum  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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Fetal Circulation Right Before Birth

Watch how the blood flows through the fetal circulation and compare it to what happens in the baby's body.  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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CIRCULATORY CHANGES AT BIRTH

2. Ductus venosus … fetal blood vessel connecting the umbilical vein to the IVC … blood flow regulated via sphincter … carries mostly hi oxygenated blood  
mcb.berkeley.edu
over 5 years ago
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Why Do Babies Cry? The Anatomical and Physiological Changes During the Moments After Birth By George Malcolm Morley, MB, ChB, FACOG

Smiles, relief, congratulations and applause do not begin when a child is born - they start when it cries. Without crying, the room becomes increasingly silent and the mood increasingly apprehensive; and for good reason - crying is a very positive sign of a new, healthy life; its absence is anything but that. Many factors and complex interactions go into the production of the sound that announces joyful, healthy childbirth.  
whale.to
over 5 years ago
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Normal Uterine Contractions During Delivery with Fetal Monitoring Strip

Labor and Delivery - Normal Uterine Contractions with Fetal Monitoring Strip. Depicts a relaxed uterus and dilated cervix followed by a contracted uterus. The third image shows a relaxed uterus. The fourth image shows the uterus contracting, and squeezing the baby toward the birth canal. The fifth and sixth illustrations picture a fetal monitor and its printout, graph with contractions and recovery periods.  
Nucleus Medical Media
over 5 years ago
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215

Hormones in Pregnancy

First in a two part series explaining the production of hormones in pregnancy. This screen cast describes the first trimester.  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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Hormones in Pregnancy

This is the second in a series of 2 screencasts about the hormones in pregnancy. This covers the hormones in the 3rd trimester.  
YouTube
over 5 years ago
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The pressures of pregnancy

In most developed countries except, notably, the United States, women are delaying parenthood for longer and longer. In England and Wales the latest data show that the mean age of a mother giving birth was at an all time high of 29.8 years in 2012 and that women aged 40 or over had the fastest rising fertility rate. Against this backdrop Kate Bramham and colleagues have explored a surprisingly under-researched area: the risks of pregnancy for women with chronic hypertension (doi:10.1136/bmj.g2301).  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
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The pressures of pregnancy

In most developed countries except, notably, the United States, women are delaying parenthood for longer and longer. In England and Wales the latest data show that the mean age of a mother giving birth was at an all time high of 29.8 years in 2012 and that women aged 40 or over had the fastest rising fertility rate. Against this backdrop Kate Bramham and colleagues have explored a surprisingly under-researched area: the risks of pregnancy for women with chronic hypertension (doi:10.1136/bmj.g2301).  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Chronic hypertension and pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective To provide an accurate assessment of complications of pregnancy in women with chronic hypertension, including comparison with population pregnancy data (US) to inform pre-pregnancy and antenatal management strategies.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Chronic hypertension during pregnancy

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the leading causes of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, 50 000 to 60 000 women die from pre-eclampsia each year, corresponding to 12% of all maternal deaths.1 2  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
Www.bmj
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Chronic hypertension during pregnancy | The BMJ

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the leading causes of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, 50 000 to 60 000 women die from pre-eclampsia each year, corresponding to 12% of all maternal deaths. - currently located behind a paywall. Your institution may have access through Athens/Elservier or similar.  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago
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Healthy eating in pregnancy

Most pregnant woman want to know the best foods to eat and what to avoid. The possible dangers of eating liver, the need to avoid unprocessed cheeses and too much tuna, and, above all, the importance of folate supplements are widely appreciated. Two linked papers from Australia (Dodd and colleagues; doi:10.1136/bmj.g1285) and Norway (Englund-Ogge and colleagues; doi:10.1136/bmj.g1446) have explored whether eating “healthily” can improve clinically important pregnancy outcomes.1 2  
bmj.com
over 5 years ago