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86395142f2bf336d5a4a17250a017e4e4bcb2ff46634031304427712
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The Vein Viewer Reveals Vessel Structure & Blood Flow

The VeinViewer uses near-infrared light to detect vessels and blood up to 10mm beneath the surface, and projects a picture onto the skin to reveal vessel structure and blood flow in real time.  
Nicole Chalmers
over 5 years ago
63c492613ab5aec159c9f772c7bd56a172998f3b8296762458240818
18
2613

Introduction to Microbiology Culture Techniques

Get an overview of basic microbiology and the concepts involved, including the bacterial growth curve and classifying organisms based on morphologies. This lecture describes blood, urine and skin/soft tissue cultures, focusing on the types of media, sample collection processes, culture procedures, as well as speciation and susceptibility testing.  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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16
456

Wound and Fracture Healing

A comprehensive summary of how skin wounds and fractures heal, broken down into manageable stages.  
Hannah Oliver
over 7 years ago
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11
442

Dermatology

for medical students: what you need to know, from skin basics to treatment in psoriasis and melanoma, managing uncertainty  
catherine hyde
about 7 years ago
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10
269

Dermatology - Overview

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1161ex7?1444773978
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218

Ancient Israelites and Infection Control

A medical students reflection on Old Testament Ritual Law and it's health implications. In an era before effective medical treatments, before science, and before evidence-based medicine, it is fascinating to see how the religious concept of ritual states (i.e. "clean" & "unclean"), helped the ancient Israelites to control disease in the population. Summary of Leviticus 13: Laws on skin disease If the skin disease was invasive (lit. "deeper than the skin") or potentially infectious (lit. involved open sores "raw flesh"), a person was declared "unclean". "Unclean" people lived in isolation from mainstream society (Lev 13:46). If the disease was non-invasive the person was quarantined for 7 days then re-examined. If the disease had spread or faded, the person was declared unclean or clean respectively. If there was no change they were quarantined for a further 7 days and then re-examined again. If after the second examination there had still been no spread or changes the disease was considered chronic and non-dangerous. Consequently, the person was declared "clean". All "clean" people exiting quarantine had to wash their clothes (Lev 13:6,34). If someone with invasive or open-sore disease healed, they returned to the priest to be re-examined & reclassified "clean". Conversely, if someone was declared "clean" and their disease developed to become invasive or open-sore disease they had to present themselves to be re-examined and reclassified "unclean". Interpretations I'm sure there are plenty of allegorical ways we can interpret Leviticus 13. Especially if we relate the skin diseases to the invasive and infectious nature of sin. But as a medical student I was fascinated looking at and considering the literal consequences of this passage, particularly in terms of the wider health implications it would have had on this ancient civilisation. Interesting... (original post here)  
David Jones
over 6 years ago
11
7
325

Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary

Be aware that any posterior pituitary disease (DI, SIADH) may also present with sx of *anterior* hypopituitarism as well (amenorrhea, gynecomastia, low libido, dry skin, cold intolerance, weight gain, poor appetite, etc.). This happens if the underlying cause is tumor or trauma.  
youtube.com
about 4 years ago
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5
207

Skin

Summary of anatomy of skin including the dermis and epidermis  
Philip Welsby
over 8 years ago
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5
244

Microbiology - Staphylococcus Aureus and Skin Abscess

WATCH VIDEO ONE: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPLV4h0Tr8c https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram:...  
YouTube
almost 5 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 yurv3e?1444774179
5
130

What it means to be an Australian with skin cancer

Each year on the 26th of January, Australia Day, Australians of all shapes, sizes and political persuasions are encouraged to reflect on what it means to be living in this big, brown, sunny land of ours. It is a time to acknowledge past wrongs, honour outstanding Australians, welcome new citizens, and perhaps toss a lamb chop on the barbie (barbecue), enjoying the great Australian summer. It is also a time to count our blessings. Australians whinge a lot about our health system. While I am certainly not suggesting the model we have is anywhere near perfect, it could be a whole lot worse. I recently read this NY times article which talks about the astronomical and ever-rising health care costs in the US and suggests that this, at least sometimes, involves a lack of informed consent (re: costs and alternative treatment options). The US is certainly not the “land of the free” when it comes to health care. There are many factors involved, not least being the trend in the US to provide specialised care for conditions that are competently and cost-effectively dealt with in primary care (by GPs) in Australia. The article gives examples such as a five minute consult conducted by a dermatologist, during which liquid nitrogen was applied to a wart, costing the patient $500. In Australia, (if bulk billed by a GP) it would have cost the patient nothing and the taxpayer $16.60 (slightly higher if the patient was a pensioner). It describes a benign mole shaved off by a nurse practitioner (with a scalpel, no stitches) costing the patient $914.56. In Australia, it could be done for under $50. The most staggering example of all was the description of the treatment of a small facial Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) which cost over $25000 (no, that is not a typo – twenty five THOUSAND dollars). In Australia, it would probably have cost the taxpayer less than $200 for its removal (depending on exact size, location and method of closure). The patient interviewed for the article was sent for Mohs surgery (and claims she was not given a choice in the matter). Mohs (pronounced “Moe’s” as in Moe’s Tavern from The Simpsons) is a highly effective technique for treating skin cancer and minimises the loss of non-cancerous tissue (in traditional skin cancer surgery you deliberately remove some of the surrounding normal skin to ensure you’ve excised all of the cancerous cells) . Wikipedia entry on Mohs. This can be of great benefit in a small minority of cancers. However, this super-specialised technique is very expensive and time/ labour intensive. Perhaps unsurprisingly, it has become extremely popular in the US. ”Moh’s for everything” seems to be the new catch cry when it comes to skin cancer treatment in the US. In the past two years, working very part time in skin cancer medicine in Australia, I have diagnosed literally hundreds of BCCs (Basal Cell Carcinomas). The vast majority of these I successfully treated (ie cured) in our practice without needing any specialist help. A handful were referred to general or plastic surgeons and one, only one, was referred for Mohs surgery. The nearest Mohs surgeon being 200 kilometres away from our clinic may have something to do with the low referral rate, but the fact remains, most BCCs (facial or otherwise), can be cured and have a good cosmetic outcome, without the need for Mohs surgery. To my mind, using Mohs on garden variety BCCs is like employing a team of chefs to come into your kitchen each morning to place bread in your toaster and then butter it for you. Overkill. Those soaking up some fine Aussie sunshine on the beach or at a backyard barbie with friends this Australia Day, gifting their skin with perfect skin-cancer-growing conditions, may wish to give thanks that when their BCCs bloom, affordable (relative to costs in the US, at least) treatment is right under their cancerous noses. Being the skin cancer capital of the world is perhaps not a title of which Australians should be proud, but the way we can treat them effectively, without breaking the bank, should be. Dr Genevieve Yates is an Australian GP, medical educator, medico-legal presenter and writer. You can read more of her work at http://genevieveyates.com/  
Dr Genevieve Yates
almost 6 years ago
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5
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Pressure Ulcers

A pressure ulcer is a sore that results from the death of the skin and its underlying tissue in areas of the body that receive pressure. This occurs when a p...  
youtube.com
over 3 years ago
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4
176

Fracture-Dislocation right shoulder

This image shows a dislocated shoulder with a fracture through the surgical neck of humerus. The patient is at high risk of axillary nerve injury. The axillary nerve supplies deltoids but this is difficult to test in these conditions - luckily it also supplies an area of skin over the shoulder known as the regimental badge - this must be tested before and after any procedure involving the shoulder.  
Rhys Clement
about 10 years ago
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4
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Side-effects of radiotherapy

Side-effects of radiotherapy Common acute side-effects  Reddening and soreness of the skin  Discomfort and swelling of breast or chest area  Fatigue Common …  
Stephen McAleer
over 6 years ago
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4
71

King's College London: Injection-free vaccination technique

Scientists at King's have demonstrated the ability to deliver a dried live vaccine to the skin without a traditional needle, and shown for the first time that this technique is powerful enough to enable specialised immune cells in the skin to kick-start the immunising properties of the vaccine. Dr Linda Klavinskis from the Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology at King's explains the research behind the new technique and its wider potential. Read more about this technique on the King's College London website: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/newsevents/news/newsrecords/2013/02-Feb/Injection-free-vaccination-technique.aspx.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1nftkgk?1444774218
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Gin & Tonic Anyone?

It was a Saturday, about tea-time in the quaint village of Athelstaneford, East Lothian. Mrs Alexandria Agutter sat in her cottage, enjoying the delights of the late-summer evening with a glass of gin and tonic. She listlessly sipped from the rather generous pick-me up, no doubt chewing over the happenings of the day. Blast! The taste was much too bitter to her liking. She stood up. And promptly crumpled to the floor in a dizzied heap. It had not been five minutes when a fiery pain gripped her parched throat and in her frenzied turn she watched the bleary room become draped in a gossamery silk. How Dame Agatha would approve. But this is no crime novel, on that fateful day, 24th August 1994, poor Mrs Agutter immortalised herself in the history books of forensic medicine; she was the victim of a revered toxin and a vintage one it was too. She had unwittingly imbibed a G&T laced with a classic poison of antiquity. A clue from the 21st century: do you recall the first Hunger Games film adaption? Those inviting purple-black berries or as Suzanne Collins coined them ‘Nightlock’; a portmanteau of hemlock and Deadly Nightshade. True to the laters’ real life appearance those onscreen fictional fruits played a recurring cameo role. Deadly Nightshade is a perennial shrub of the family Solanaceae and a relative of the humble potato (a member of the Solanus genus). It is a resident of our native woodland and may be found as far afield as Europe, Africa and Western Asia. The 18th century taxonomist, Carl Linnaeus gave the plant an intriguing name in his great Species Plantarum. The genus Atropa is aptly named after one of the three Greek Fates, Atropos. She is portrayed shearing the thread of a mortal’s life so determining the time and manner of its inevitable end. The Italian species name belladona (beautiful woman) refers to the striking mydriatic effect of the plant on the eye. The name pays homage to Pietro Andre Mattioli, a 16th century physician from Sienna, who was allegedly the first to describe the plant’s use among the Venetian glitterati - ladies of fashion favoured the seductive, doe-eyed look. Belladona is poisonous in its entirety. It was from the plant’s roots in 1831, the German apothecary Heinrich F. G. Mein isolated a white, odourless, crystalline powder: it was (surprise, surprise) atropine. Atropine is a chiral molecule. From its natural plant source it exists as a single stereoisomer L-atropine, which also happens to display a chiral potency 50-100 times that of its D-enantiomer. As with many other anaesthetic agents it is administered as a racemic mixture. How strange that atropine now sits among the anaesthetist’s armamentarium, its action as a competitive antimuscarinic to counter vagal stimulation belies its dark history. It was a favourite of Roman housewives seeking retribution against their less than faithful husbands and a staple of the witch’s potion cupboard. Little wonder how belladona became known as the Devil’s plant. Curiouser still it’s also the antidote for other poisons, most notably the organophosphates or nerve gases. On account of its non-selective antagonism, atropine produces a constellation of effects: the inhibition of salivary, lacrimal and sweat glands occurs at low doses; dry mouth and skin are early markers. Pyrexia is a central effect exacerbated by the inability to sweat. Flushing of the face due to skin vessel vasodilatation. Low parasympathetic tone causes a moderate sinus tachycardia. Vision is blurred as the eye becomes dilated, unresponsive to light and accommodation is impaired. Mental disorientation, agitation and ataxia give the impression of drunkedness or a delirium tremens like syndrome. Visual hallucinations, often of butterflies or silk blowing in the wind, are a late feature. It was then that Mr Agutter, seemingly untroubled by the sight of his wife’s problematic situation, proceeded to leave a message with the local practitioner. How fortunate they were to have the vigilant locum check the answering machine and come round to the Agutter’s lodge accompanied by an ambulance crew. The attending paramedic had the presence of mind to pour the remainder of Mrs Agutter’s beverage into a nearby jam jar, while Mr Agutter handed over what he suspected to be the offending ingredient: the bottle of Indian tonic water. As it soon transpired there were seven other casualties in the surrounding countryside of East Lothian – all involving an encounter with tonic water. In fact by some ironic twist of fate, two of the victims were the wife and son of Dr Geoffry Sharwood-Smith, a consultant aneasthetist. Obviously very familiar with the typical toxidrome of anticholinergic agents, he was quick to suspect atropine poisoning. Although for a man of his position with daily access to a sweetshop of drugs, it was not something to draw attention to. Through no small amount of cunning had the poisoner(s) devised the plan. It was elegant; atropine is very bitter. So much so that it can be detected at concentrations of 100 parts per million (0.001%). Those foolish enough to try the berries of belladonna during walks in the woods are often saved by the berry’s sour taste. They are soon spat out. But the quinine in the tonic water was a worthy disguise. The lethal dose for an adult is approximately 90-130mg, however atropine sensitivity is highy variable. In its salt form, atropine sulfate, it is many times more soluble: >100g can be dissolved in 100ml of water. So 1ml may contain roughly tenfold the lethal dose. There ensued a nationwide scare; 50 000 bottles of Safeway branded Indian tonic water were sacrificed. Only six bottles had been contaminated. They had all been purchased, tops unsealed, from the local Safeway in Hunter’s Tryst. Superficially this looked like the handiwork of a psychopath with a certain distaste for the supermarket brand, and amidst the media furore, it did have some verisimilitude: one of the local papers received a letter from 25 year old, Wayne Smith admitting himself as the sole perpetrator. The forensic scientist, Dr Howard Oakley analysed the contents of the bottles. They all contained a non-lethal dose, 11-74mg/litre of atropine except for the Agutter’s, it contained 103mg/litre. The jam jar holding Mrs Agutter’s drink bore even more sinister results, the atropine concentration was 292mg/L. It would appear Mrs Agutter had in some way outstayed her welcome. But she lived. A miscalculation on the part of the person who had added an extra seasoning of atropine to her drink. According to the numbers she would have had to swallow a can’s worth (330ml) to reach the lethal dose. Thankfully she had taken no more than 50mg. The spotlight suddenly fell on Dr Paul Agutter. He was a lecturer of biochemistry at the nearby University of Napier, which housed a research syndicate specialising in toxicology. CCTV footage had revealed his presence at the Safeway in Hunter’s Tryst and there was eye witness evidence of him having placed bottles onto the shelves. Atropine was also detected by the forensic investigators on a cassete case in his car. Within a matter of two weeks he would be arrested for the attempted murder of his wife. Despite the calculated scheme to delay emergency services and to pass the blame onto a non-existent mass poisoner, he had not accomplished the perfect murder. Was there a motive? Allegedly his best laid plans were for the sake of a mistress, a mature student from Napier. He served seven years of a twelve year sentence. Astonishingly, upon his release from Glenochil prison in 2002, he contacted his then former wife proclaiming his innocence and desire to rejoin her in their Scottish home. A proposition she was not very keen on. Dr Agutter was employed by Manchester University as a lecturer of philosophy and medical ethics. He is currently an associate editor of the online journal Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. We will never know the true modus operandi as Dr Agutter never confessed to the crime. Perhaps all this story can afford is weak recompense for the brave followers of the Dry January Campaign. Oddly these sort of incidents never appear in their motivational testimonials. Acknowledgements Emsley J. Molecules of Murder. 2008, Cambridge, RSC Publishing, p.46-67. Lee MR. Solanaceae IV: Atropa belladona, deadly nightshade. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. March 2007; 37: 77-84. Illustrator Edward Wong This blog post is a reproduction of an article published in the The Medical Student Newspaper January issue, 2014 http://www.themedicalstudent.co.uk/  
James Wong
almost 6 years ago
0
4
125

Gastrulation Lecture

Following the implantation of the blastocyst into the endometrium of uterus, the embryo begins another important embryological process called gastrulation. Gastrulation is the formation of the three distinct germ layers - the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm. The ectoderm is the outermost layer of the developing embryo and it consists of cells that eventually give rise to the integumentary system (the outer skin, nails and hair) as well as the nervous system (central and peripheral system). The mesoderm is the middle layer of the developing embryo and it consists of cells that eventually give rise to the musculoskeletal system (bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle), cardiovascular system (the heart and blood vessels), excretory system (kidneys) and reproductive system (gonads). The endoderm is the innermost layer of the developing embryo and it gives rise to the epithelial layer of the digestive tract, lungs, pancreas, bladder, liver as well as the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland and thymus.  
aklectures.com
over 4 years ago
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4
120

The skin and face are the primary sites of affect and motivation

Silvan Tomkins played a critical role in the emergence of research on the face and facial expressions. His ability to read faces was legendary and astonishing. ...  
tomkins.org
over 3 years ago
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3
52

Fifth Disease

Fifth Disease - so called as it was the fifth of the six common childhood skin rashes when it was first classified back in the 18th and 19th centuries. Formally known as Erythema Infectiosum and also colloquially called slapped cheek syndrome. Aietiology and Epidemiology  Caused by infection with Parvovirus B19 (aka erythrovirus)    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 5 years ago
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3
83

Microbiology - Staphylococcus Aureus and Skin Abscess

WATCH VIDEO ONE: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPLV4h0Tr8c https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram:...  
YouTube
about 5 years ago