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Respiratory distress syndrome | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a relatively common condition resulting from insufficient production of surfactant that occurs in preterm neonates. TerminologyRDS is also known as hyaline membrane disease (not favoured as reflects non-speci...  
radiopaedia.org
over 4 years ago
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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - Causes, Treatment & Therapies - Gold Canyon AZ

The Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an unceasing pain condition that often affects one of the limbs (that can be arms, legs, hands, or feet), generally after an injury or trauma to that particular limb. Complex regional pain syndrome is believed to be caused due to damage, or malfunctioning of the peripheral and central nervous systems. The central nervous system encompasses the brain and spinal cord; whereas the peripheral nervous system includes the nerve signaling from the brain and the spinal cord to the other parts of the body. The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is exemplified by prolonged or a chronic pain and mild or dramatic changes in the color of the skin, temperature or even swelling in the affecting area.  
calmareaz.com
over 4 years ago
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Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal sepsis, umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and fetal death. Appropriate evaluation and management are important for improving neonatal outcomes. Speculum examination to determine cervical dilation is preferred because digital examination is associated with a decreased latent period and with the potential for adverse sequelae. Treatment varies depending on gestational age and includes consideration of delivery when rupture of membranes occurs at or after 34 weeks' gestation. Corticosteroids can reduce many neonatal complications, particularly intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory distress syndrome, and antibiotics are effective for increasing the latency period.  
aafp.org
over 4 years ago
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Acute Colonic Pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome)

<p>Acute Colonic Pseudoobstruction (ACPO) is commonly called Ogilvies Syndrome. &nbsp;ACPO presents massive dilation in critically ill patients, and might result in invasive procedures to avoid ischemia or perforation of the colon.</p>  
Jeffrey S. Guy, MD, FACS
almost 10 years ago
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Identifying and Treating All Aspects of Fibromyalgia: A New Look Into a Painful Syndrome - Management of All Fibromyalgia Symptoms

In this podcast, Drs. Andrew Cutler and Stephen M. Stahl examine the current treatment options available to treat the myriad symptoms of fibromyalgia. New treatment options are also reviewed in light of recent findings regarding chronic pain.  
Neuroscience Education Institute
almost 10 years ago
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Glaucoma-Pigmentary Dispersion Syndrome

Sample audio file from <a href="../Products.html">Ophthalmology Buzzwords™</a> Audio Book.  
Rob Melendez, MD, MBA
almost 10 years ago
29746
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Mental Status Abnormal

Orientation, Memor This patient has difficulty with orientation questions. The day of the week is correct but he misses the month and date. He is oriented to place. Orientation mistakes are not localizing but can be due to problems with memory, language, judgement, attention or concentration. The patient has good recent memory (declarative memory) as evidenced by the recall of three objects but has difficulty with long term memory as evidenced by the difficulty recalling the current and past presidents. Attention-working memor The patient has difficulty with digit span backwards, spelling backwards and giving the names of the months in reverse order. This indicates a problem with working memory and maintaining attention, both of which are frontal lobe functions. Judgement-abstract reasoning The patient gives the correct answer for a house on fire and his answers for similarities are also good. He has problems with proverb interpretation. His answers are concrete and consist of rephrasing the proverb or giving a simple consequence of the action in the proverb. Problems with judgement, abstract reasoning, and executive function can be seen in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Set generatio Set generation tests word fluency and frontal lobe function. The patient starts well but abruptly stops after only four words. Most individuals can give more then 10 words in one minute. Receptive languag Patients with a receptive aphasia (Wernicke’s) cannot comprehend language. Their speech output is fluent but is devoid of meaning and contains nonsense syllables or words (neologisms). Their sentences are usually lacking nouns and there are paraphasias (one word substituted for another). The patient is usually unaware of their language deficit and prognosis for recovery is poor. This patient’s speech is fluent and some of her sentences even make sense but she also has nonsense sentences, made up of words and parts of words. She can’t name objects (anomia). She doesn’t have a pure or complete receptive aphasia but pure receptive aphasias are rare. Expressive languag This patient with expressive aphasia has normal comprehension but her expression of language is impaired. Her speech output is nonfluent and often limited to just a few words or phases. Grammatical words such as prepositions are left out and her speech is telegraphic. She has trouble saying “no ifs , ands or buts”. Her ability to write is also effected Patients with expressive aphasia are aware of their language deficit and are often frustrated by it. Recovery can occur but is often incomplete with their speech consisting of short phrases or sentences containing mainly nouns and verbs. Praxi The patient does well on most of the tests of praxis. At the very end when he is asked to show how to cut with scissors he uses his fingers as the blades of the scissors instead of acting like he is holding onto the handles of the scissors and cutting. This can be an early finding of inferior parietal lobe dysfunction. Gnosi With his right hand the patient has more difficulty identifying objects then with his left hand. One must be careful in interpreting the results of this test because of the patient’s motor deficits but there does seem to be astereognosis on the right, which would indicate left parietal lobe dysfunction. This is confirmed with graphesthesia where he definitely has more problems identifying numbers written on the right hand then the left (agraphesthesia of the right hand). Dominant parietal lobe functio This patient has right-left confusion and difficulty with simple arithmetic. These are elements of the Gertsmann syndrome, which is seen in lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. The full syndrome consists of right-left confusion, finger agnosia, agraphia and acalculia.  
Neurologic Exam
over 9 years ago
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Marfan Syndrome

Introduction Marfan Syndrome (sometime Marfan’s Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder.   Epidemiology and Aeitiology 25% of cases occur without family history Reduced life expectancy – average is around 60   Pathology  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Systemic Sclerosis

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Other similar diseases include SLE, RA, Sjogren’s syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease. There is a lot of overlap in the symptoms of these diseases. Many will require immunosuppressive therapy.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Conn's Syndrome | almostadoctor

Conn’s Syndrome: This is basically primary hyperaldosteronism. It will cause hypernatreamia and hypokalaemia. It is a recognised cause of hypertension – but it is rare. It can also cause alkylosis (due to the exchange of sodium for hydrogen by some channels in the tubule). This links to brief synopsis of Conn's Syndrome on almostadoctor.co.uk  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH)

 
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Goodpasture’s syndrome (anti-GBM antibody disease)

  This is a rare, genetic, autoimmune condition characterised by a combination of glomerulonephritis with alveolar hemorrhage in the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies.  Circulating anti-GBM antibodies bind to basement membranes in the kidneys and lungs, fix complement and trigger a cell-mediated inflammatory response, causing glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis.    Specific predisposing factors include the following: Association with HLA-DR2  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Fragile X Syndrome (Martin-Bell Syndrome)

So called as there is a ‘fragile site’ on the X chromosome. This is a non-staining, weakened section of the chromosome which is susceptible to breaking. It is an example of a trinucleotide expansion mutation, but is usually inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern.  Fragile X syndrome is the second most common cause of genetic learning difficulty after Down’s Syndrome.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta – L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC Accounts for up to 10% of congential heart defects Male:female ratio is 2:1 Affects 10-20% of patients with Turner’s Syndrome Almost always affects the thoracic aorta, virtually never the abdominal   Clinical features  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Eponymous Psychiatric Syndromes

 
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 6 years ago
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Spare Part Syndrome

Gastro ward: Year 3  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
about 6 years ago
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Infection with polyomavirus JC

The recent discovery of new neurological syndromes that result from neuronal infection with polyomavirus JC, also known as JC virus, and the presence of this virus in the grey matter are currently under debate.1 It has been suggested that JC virus is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, strokes, and brain tumours,2 and this hypothesis has been commented on in the BMJ.3  
bmj.com
about 6 years ago
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WHO voices concern over rising numbers of MERS-CoV cases

The World Health Organization has expressed concern over the rising number of cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in recent weeks, particularly in the light of two significant outbreaks at healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.  
bmj.com
about 6 years ago
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Painful diabetic neuropathy

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined.  
www.bmj.com
about 6 years ago
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Mum's decision to save only one twin

A mother who refused life-saving treatment for one of her unborn twins in order to save the other is calling for better information on the dangers of slapped cheek syndrome.  
BBC News
about 6 years ago