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Tuberculosis

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Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings

Facemasks are recommended for diseases transmitted through droplets and respirators for respiratory aerosols, yet recommendations and terminology vary between guidelines. The concepts of droplet and airborne transmission that are entrenched in clinical practice have recently been shown to be more complex than previously thought. Several randomised clinical trials of facemasks have been conducted in community and healthcare settings, using widely varying interventions, including mixed interventions (such as masks and handwashing), and diverse outcomes. Of the nine trials of facemasks identified in community settings, in all but one, facemasks were used for respiratory protection of well people. They found that facemasks and facemasks plus hand hygiene may prevent infection in community settings, subject to early use and compliance. Two trials in healthcare workers favoured respirators for clinical respiratory illness. The use of reusable cloth masks is widespread globally, particularly in Asia, which is an important region for emerging infections, but there is no clinical research to inform their use and most policies offer no guidance on them. Health economic analyses of facemasks are scarce and the few published cost effectiveness models do not use clinical efficacy data. The lack of research on facemasks and respirators is reflected in varied and sometimes conflicting policies and guidelines. Further research should focus on examining the efficacy of facemasks against specific infectious threats such as influenza and tuberculosis, assessing the efficacy of cloth masks, investigating common practices such as reuse of masks, assessing compliance, filling in policy gaps, and obtaining cost effectiveness data using clinical efficacy estimates.  
bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
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4

Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings

Facemasks are recommended for diseases transmitted through droplets and respirators for respiratory aerosols, yet recommendations and terminology vary between guidelines. The concepts of droplet and airborne transmission that are entrenched in clinical practice have recently been shown to be more complex than previously thought. Several randomised clinical trials of facemasks have been conducted in community and healthcare settings, using widely varying interventions, including mixed interventions (such as masks and handwashing), and diverse outcomes. Of the nine trials of facemasks identified in community settings, in all but one, facemasks were used for respiratory protection of well people. They found that facemasks and facemasks plus hand hygiene may prevent infection in community settings, subject to early use and compliance. Two trials in healthcare workers favoured respirators for clinical respiratory illness. The use of reusable cloth masks is widespread globally, particularly in Asia, which is an important region for emerging infections, but there is no clinical research to inform their use and most policies offer no guidance on them. Health economic analyses of facemasks are scarce and the few published cost effectiveness models do not use clinical efficacy data. The lack of research on facemasks and respirators is reflected in varied and sometimes conflicting policies and guidelines. Further research should focus on examining the efficacy of facemasks against specific infectious threats such as influenza and tuberculosis, assessing the efficacy of cloth masks, investigating common practices such as reuse of masks, assessing compliance, filling in policy gaps, and obtaining cost effectiveness data using clinical efficacy estimates.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
0
14

Fake medicines are undermining global efforts to combat infectious disease, says US journal

Counterfeit and poor quality medicines threaten to undermine decades of progress in global health, particularly in the areas of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, say papers published on 20 April in a special supplement of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.1  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
0
18

Fake medicines are undermining global efforts to combat infectious disease, says US journal

Counterfeit and poor quality medicines threaten to undermine decades of progress in global health, particularly in the areas of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, say papers published on 20 April in a special supplement of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.1  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
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16

Adding vitamin D to standard tuberculosis treatment is not beneficial, finds study

Supplementing conventional tuberculosis treatment with vitamin D does not shorten the time taken to clear the infection, a study conducted at 13 sites in Tamil Nadu, India, has found.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
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2

Cough and weight loss in a young man

A 28 year old man was referred to the emergency department by his general practitioner after presenting with a two day history of haemoptysis. He described coughing up a teaspoon of fresh blood in the morning after a month of coughing up rusty coloured sputum. This was on a background of eight months of persistent cough associated with progressive lethargy and weight loss, with isolated episodes of night sweats. His travel history showed no exposure to high risk areas for tuberculosis or HIV, and he denied any high risk behaviours for contracting HIV. He had never smoked.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Static.www.bmj
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13

New drug combination may shorten tuberculosis treatment, study says

A new combination drug regimen is more effective at reducing levels of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis than standard treatment and acts more quickly, an initial short term study has found.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
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7

Emergency medical support needed to prevent deaths in Donetsk and Luhansk

Concerns are growing over the disruption in treatment for people living with HIV and tuberculosis in Eastern Ukraine where fighting in the rebel-controlled territories of Donetsk and Luhansk...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
1

Case Western Reserve to lead international research on resistance to infection with bacteria-causing tuberculosis

After discovering a unique group of people resistant to tuberculosis (TB) infection, Case Western Reserve researchers are leading an international team dedicated to understanding exactly how...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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2

Budget cuts undermine global health innovations protecting against threats like Ebola

As the world looks to American innovation to fight Ebola, malaria, tuberculosis, and a host of other health threats, a new report released on Capitol Hill warns budget battles in Washington...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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Life-saving treatments learned from war being missed

Trauma is responsible for more global deaths annually than HIV, malaria and tuberculosis combined.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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Turning to freshwater sources to fight drug-resistant tuberculosis, other infections

The discovery of antibiotics produced by soil fungi and bacteria gave the world life-saving medicine.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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11

Fighting tuberculosis using the body's natural anti-microbial processes

A new approach to combatting tuberculosis would take advantage of a complex, natural process called autophagy that the human body uses to recycle nutrients, remove damaged cell components...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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3

Mummified bodies reveal how tuberculosis ravaged the heart of 18th century Europe

Bodies found in a 200 year-old Hungarian crypt have revealed the secrets of how tuberculosis (TB) took hold in 18th century Europe, according to a research team led by the University of Warwick.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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4

Blood-based biomarkers could enable simple, accurate TB tests for diagnosis and monitoring

Researchers have identified blood-based biomarkers in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB) that could lead to new blood-based diagnostics and tools for monitoring treatment response and cure.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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8

How the human immune system keeps TB at bay

A new tissue culture model using human white blood cells shows how people with a latent - or symptom-free - tuberculosis infection are protected from active disease by a critical early step in...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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2

To end TB, treat the missing millions

Every year, among the estimated 9 million persons who develop tuberculosis (TB), 3 million are missed - not diagnosed, treated, or even tracked by national TB programs - according to a Guest...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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Genetic discovery provides clues to how TB may evade the immune system

The largest genetic study of tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility to date has led to a potentially important new insight into how the pathogen manages to evade the immune system.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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International Journal of Infectious Diseases marks World TB Day 2015 with publication of special issue

To mark World TB Day, March 24, 2015, the International Journal of Infectious Diseases is publishing a Special Issue that will help raise awareness about the burden of tuberculosis and...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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47

TB's ability to evade immune system becomes clearer in large study

The largest genetic study ever undertaken to examine people's susceptibility to tuberculosis reveals important clues about the bacterium's effect on dendritic cells.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago