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UpperExtremity

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3
479

Muscle Reference- ARM

Furaffinity: [link] "Tada, it's a musculature reference. Arm is first, more to come later. I used a lot of references so you don't have to! And stuff is... Muscle Reference- ARM  
10kk.deviantart.com
almost 8 years ago
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8
504

Upper Extremity - Anatomy Ocsi with Willard at University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine - StudyBlue

Study online flashcards and notes for Upper Extremity including Superficial muscles (layer 1) of anterior compartment of forearm.: Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris ; Flexor Ca  
StudyBlue
almost 8 years ago
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4
281

Anatomy of the Shoulder and Rotator Cuff

The rotator cuff (rotor cuff) is a term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. The Rotator Cuff muscles are connected individually to a group of flat tendons, which fuse together and surround the front, the back, and the top of the shoulder joint. The Rotator Cuff ligaments attach bone to bone and provide stability to the shoulder joint bones.  
aidmyrotatorcuff.com
almost 8 years ago
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8
774

An easy way to remember arm muscles

Dr Preddy teaching anatomy at Touro University Nevada.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 8 years ago
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4
57

Junior Doctors: Your Life In Their Hands

An episode from BBC series which follows the lives of junior doctors in the UK.  
YouTube
almost 8 years ago
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1
31

Virtual arm eases phantom limb pain - BBC News

Doctors have devised a new way to treat amputees with phantom limb pain.  
BBC News
almost 8 years ago
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42
764

Hand-drawn Immunology Tutorial

The basics of Immunology.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 8 years ago
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5
101

In the Hands

What to look for in the hands when performing a general clinical examination -- perfect for the medical student on their first placement. Far from comprehensive, but an excellent starting point if you're not quite sure what approach to take. Part of our series on basic clinical examination. If you enjoyed this video, why not subscribe for all the latest from HippocraTV? And let us know what you'd like us to cover next -- like all good educationalists, we can't get enough of that sweet, sweet feedback. Now get out there and see some patients! Music: Brittle Raille by Kevin Macleod Cool Vibes by Kevin Macleod Dub Feral by Kevin Macleod Local Forecast by Kevin Macleod Groove Grove by Kevin Macleod (all via the wonderful Incompetech.com) Special thanks to Harrison Ferguson Disclaimer: HippocraTV is not affiliated with any medical school or NHS trust. While we make a great effort to ensure our content is correct and up-to-date, watching YouTube is not a substitute for reading a textbook, attending a lecture or seeing a real-life patient.  
Hippocrates
almost 8 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1njk26?1444774138
3
141

Doctor or a scientist?

"One special advantage of the skeptical attitude of mind is that a man is never vexed to find that after all he has been in the wrong" Sir William Osler Well, it's almost Christmas. I know it's Christmas because the animal skeleton situated in the reception of my University's Anatomy School has finally been re-united with his (or her?) Christmas hat, has baubles for eyes and tinsel on its ribcage. This doesn't help with my trying to identify it (oh the irony if it is indeed a reindeer). This term has probably been one of the toughest academic terms I've had, but then when you intercalate that is sort of what you choose to let yourself in for. I used to think that regular readings were a chore in the pre-clinical years. I had ample amounts of ethics, sociology and epidemiology readings to do but this is nothing compared to the world of scientific papers. The first paper I had to read this term related to Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) integrity in articular cartilage and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis. Well, I know that now. When I first started reading it felt very much like a game of boggle and highly reminiscent of high school spanish lessons where I just sat and nodded my head. This wasn't the end. Every seminar has come with its own prescribed reading list. The typical dose is around 4-5 papers. This got me thinking. We don't really spend all that much time understanding how to read scientific papers nor do we really explore our roles as 'scientists' as well as future clinicians. Training programmes inevitably seem to create false divides between the 'clinicans' and the 'academics' and sometimes this has negative consequences - one simply criticises the other: Doctors don't know enough about science, academics are out of touch with the real world etc... Doctors as scientists... The origins of medicine itself lie with some of the greatest scientists of all time - Herophilus, Galen, Da Vinci, William Harvey (the list is endless). As well as being physicians, all of these people were also respected scientists who regularly made contributions to our understanding of the body's mechanics. Albeit, the concept of ethics was somewhat thrown to the wind (Herophilus, though dead for thousands of years, is regularly accused of performing vivisections on prisoners in his discovery of the duodenum). Original sketches by William Harvey which proved a continuous circuit of blood being supplied and leaving the upper limb. He used his observations to explain the circulatory system as we know it today What was unique about these people? The ability to challenge what they saw. They made observations, tested them against their own knowledge and asked more questions - they wanted to know more. As well as being doctors, we have the unique opportunity to make observations and question what we see. What's causing x to turn into y? What trends do we see in patients presenting with x? The most simple question can lead to the biggest shift in understanding. It only took Semmelweiss to ask why women were dying in a maternity ward to give rise to our concept of modern infection control. Bad Science... Anyone who has read the ranting tweets, ranting books and ranting YouTube TED videos of academic/GP Ben Goldacre will be familiar with this somewhat over used term. Pseudoscience (coined by the late great Karl Popper) is a much more sensible and meaningful term. Science is about gathering evidence which supports your hypothesis. Pseudoscience is a field which makes claims that cannot be tested by a study. In truth, there's lots and lots of relatively useless information in print. It's fine knowing about biomarker/receptor/cytokine/antibody/gene/transcription factor (insert meaningless acronym here) but how is it relevant and how does it fit into the bigger picture? Science has become reductionist. We're at the gene level and new reducing levels of study (pharmacogenetics) break this down even further and sometimes, this is at an expense of providing anything useful to your clinicial toolbox. Increasing job competition and post-graduate 'scoring' systems has also meant there's lots of rushed research in order to get publications and citations. This runs the danger of further undermining the doctors role as a true contributor to science. Most of it is wrong... I read an article recently that told me at least 50% of what I learn in medical school will be proven wrong in my lifetime. That might seem disheartening since I may have pointlessly consumed ample coffee to revise erroneous material. However, it's also exciting. What if you prove it wrong? What if you contributed to changing our understanding? As a doctor, there's no reason why you can't. If we're going to practice evidence-based medicine then we need to understand that evidence and doing this requires us to wear our scientist hat. It would be nice to see a whole generation of doctors not just willing to accept our understanding but to challenge that which is tentative. That's what science is all about. Here's hoping you don't find any meta-analyses in your stockings. Merry Christmas.  
Lucas Brammar
about 8 years ago
%3fr=0
7
197

Physician Don’t Heal Thyself

By Genevieve Yates One reason why I chose to do medicine was that I didn’t always trust doctors – another being access to an endless supply of jelly beans. My mistrust stemmed from my family’s unfortunate collection of medical misadventures: Grandpa’s misdiagnosed and ultimately fatal cryptococcal meningitis, my brother’s missed L4/L5 fracture, Dad’s iatrogenic brachial plexus injury and the stuffing-up of my radius and ulna fractures, to name a few. I had this naïve idea that my becoming a doctor would allow me to be more in charge of the health of myself and my family. When I discovered that doctors were actively discouraged from treating themselves, their loved ones and their mothers-in-law, and that a medical degree did not come with a lifetime supply of free jelly beans, I felt cheated. I got over the jelly bean disappointment quickly – after all, the allure of artificially coloured and flavoured gelatinous sugar lumps was far less strong at age 25 than it was at age 5 – but the Medical Board’s position regarding self-treatment took a lot longer to swallow. Over the years I’ve come to understand why guidelines exist regarding treating oneself and one’s family, as well as close colleagues, staff and friends. Lack of objectivity is not the only problem. Often these types of consults occur in informal settings and do not involve adequate history taking, examination or note-making. They can start innocently enough but have the potential to run into serious ethical and legal minefields. I’ve come to realise that, like having an affair with your boss or lending your unreliable friend thousands of dollars to buy a car, treating family, friends and staff is a pitfall best avoided. Although we’ve all heard that “A physician who heals himself has an idiot for a doctor and a fool for a patient”, large numbers of us still self-treat. I recently conducted a self-care session with about thirty very experienced GP supervisors whose average age was around fifty. When asked for a show of hands as to how many had his/her own doctor, about half the group confidently raised their hands. I then asked these to lower their hands if their nominated doctor was a spouse, parent, practice partner or themselves. At least half the hands went down. When asked if they’d seek medical attention if they were significantly unwell, several of the remainder said, “I don’t get sick,” and one said, “Of course I’d see a doctor – I’d look in the mirror.” Us girls are a bit more likely to seek medical assistance than the blokes (after all, it is pretty difficult to do your own PAP smear – believe me, I’ve tried), but neither gender group can be held up as a shining example of responsible, compliant patients. It seems very much a case of “Do as I say, not do as I do”. I wonder how much of this is due to the rigorous “breed ’em tough” campaigns we’ve been endured from the earliest days of our medical careers. I recall when one of my fellow interns asked to finish her DEM shift twenty minutes early so that she could go to the doctor. Her supervising senior registrar refused her request and told her, “Routine appointments need to be made outside shift hours. If you are sick enough to be off work, you should be here as a patient.” My friend explained that this was neither routine, nor a life-threatening emergency, but that she thought she had a urinary tract infection. She was instructed to cancel her appointment, dipstick her own urine, take some antibiotics out of the DEM supply cupboard and get back to work. “You’re a doctor now; get your priorities right and start acting like one” was the parting message. Through my work in medical education, I’ve had the opportunity to talk to several groups of junior doctors about self-care issues and the reasons for imposing boundaries on whom they treat, hopefully encouraging to them to establish good habits while they are young and impressionable. I try to practise what I preach: I see my doctor semi-regularly and have a I’d-like-to-help-you-but-I’m-not-in-a-position-to-do-so mantra down pat. I’ve used this speech many times to my advantage, such as when I’ve been asked to look at great-aunt Betty’s ulcerated toe at the family Christmas get-together, and to write a medical certificate and antibiotic script for a whingey boyfriend with a man-cold. The message is usually understood but the reasons behind it aren’t always so. My niece once announced knowledgably, “Doctors don’t treat family because it’s too hard to make them pay the proper fee.” This young lady wants to be a doctor when she grows up, but must have different reasons than I did at her age. She doesn’t even like jelly beans! Genevieve Yates is an Australian GP, medical educator, medico-legal presenter and writer. You can read more of her work at http://genevieveyates.com/  
Dr Genevieve Yates
about 8 years ago
7
0
94

Guyon's canal syndrome - tingling in hand?

The same question as with carpal tunnel syndrome. Are only the fingers (the pinky and adjacent half of the ring finger) affected or also the related part of the hand? Acoording to my research until now, there can be paresthesia in the pinky side of the hand but only about halfway toward the wrist. Most other pictures show altered sensitivity beyond the wrist.  
Jan Modric
over 8 years ago
5
0
14

Which exact parts of the hand are affected in carpal tunnel syndrome?

I'm asking only about sensitivity. Most pictures of carpal tunnel syndrome show that the thumb, index, middle and the adjacent half of the ring AND the related part of the hand are affected. But this image from fpnotebook.com clearly shows and says that the palm sensitivity is mediated by the branch of the median nerve that does not go through the carpal tunnel. So, I made a new image of carpal tunnel syndrome with only fingers colored. Can anyone who is certain of this say did I make it correct or not?  
Jan Modric
over 8 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 w5wmg1?1444774074
16
742

Exam Survival Guide

1. Sleep (I realize I’m posting this at 12:30 am…) (http://www.helpguide.org/life/sleep_tips.htm) I know there’s a popular perception of sleep deprivation going hand in hand with working hard or succeeding academically. However, that is only true if you’re working very last minute, and don’t care about retaining the information–you basically just want to get through your upcoming test/assignment. I would like to clarify that, although learning about 10 months of material in 2 weeks is overwhelming, it is NOT last minute because whatever you’re working on right now, you’ll have to remember in 2 weeks for your exam. Besides the exam, if you’re studying medicine, you need to remember most of these things for the rest of your life. In order to retain that information, you need to stay alert, well rested and motivated. Prolonged sleep deprivation can make you feel very ‘CBA’ very fast. 2. Stay Energized Sleep is only one factor in staying motivated and alert; another is staying energized¬–in a healthy way. Simply put: if you feel well, you’ll work well. Eat well: difficult, I know, when you’ve got so little time to spare; but as much as you can, try to eat more whole foods (aka things that don’t come in wrappers or have their own commercial) and keep a balanced diet (too much of anything is usually not good). Everyone snacks while they’re doing exams, but try to find a vice that won’t put you in a sugar coma (some good examples include berries and other fruits, nuts, carrots with hummus to dip in, granola bars, etc). Note: drinking tea is also an excellent way to stay energized! Stay active: Again, I know something like this is difficult to keep up in normal everyday life, let alone during exam stress. Even if it is just for 15-20 minutes, some cardio (note: the more strenuous the workout in a short period of time, the more benefit you’ll get) is a fantastic ‘eye-opener’ (I learned that phrase while learning how to take an alcohol history and now I really like it)! No one wants to go for a run in the morning, but after you get past the first 2-3 minutes of wanting to collapse, your body starts to feel really grateful. This is the BEST way to stimulate your senses and wake yourself up. I promise it’s better than any energy drink or cup of coffee you could have. Take small breaks: SMALL breaks!!! About 10 minutes. Every once in a while, you need to get up and walk around to give yourself a break, have some fresh air, grab a snack, but try not to get carried away; try to avoid having a short attention span. 3. Make Lists I cannot stress enough how counterproductive it is to overwhelm yourself with the amount of work you have. Whether you think about it or not, that pile is not going anywhere. Thinking about it won’t wish it away. Stop psyching yourself out and just get on with it– step by step. Making a list of objectives you need to accomplish that day or week is a great way to start; then, cross them out as you go along (such a satisfying feeling). Being able to visualize your progress will be a great motivator. Remember: it is important to be systematic with your studying approach; if you jump around between modules because they’re boring you’re just going to confuse yourself and make it hard to remember things when that exam comes Note: I have a white board in my room where I write my objectives for the week. Some days it motivates, some days it I want to throw it out the window (but I can't reach the latch)… 4. Practice Questions Practice questions are excellent for monitoring your progress; they’re also excellent at scaring you. Do not fear! This is a good thing, because now you know what you’re missing, go back and read up on what you forgot to take a look at, and come back and do the questions later. Then give yourself a sticker for getting it right ? Practice questions are also great for last minute studying too because they can help you do what I call “backwards studying”–which is what I just described: figuring out what you need to learn based on what the questions look like. 5. Be realistic Set realistic goals for yourself; most importantly, set realistic daily goals for yourself so that when you get all or most or even some of them done you can go to sleep with a level of satisfaction. Also, you need to pick your battles. Example: if you suck at neuro, then one module’s loss is another’s gain. Don’t spend too much time trying to get through one thing, just keep moving forward, and come back to it later 6. ‘Do not disturb’ Facebook, twitter, instagram, youtube, whatsapp, texting, pinterest, meme websites, so many fantastic ways to kill your time… Do yourself a favor, save them for your breaks. If someone is dying or on fire, they will most likely call you, not text you or write on your wall; you do not need to check your phone that often unless you're expecting something time sensitive. 7.Don’t Compare Everyone studying in your program is going to be stressed about things; do NOT let it rub off on you. You know those moments when you hear a peer or a prof/tutor describing something you have never even heard of, then you start panicking? Yeah, don’t do that. It happens to everyone. Instead of worrying so much, just go read about it! Simple solution right? What else are you going to do? Plus, a lot of the time other students seem to know more than they need to about certain things (which I can tell you right now, doesn’t always mean they’re doing better than you; knowing random, very specific factoids doesn’t mean they can bring it in clinic. Everyone can pull a Hermione and know a book inside out, but this is not necessarily the hallmark of a good doctor), what’s it to you? Worry about yourself, be confident in your abilities, and don’t trouble yourself with comparing to other people 8.Practice for Practicals Everyone is afraid of practical exams, like the OSCE (at any rest station you're likely to find me with my head in my hands trying to stabilize my breathing pattern and trying not to cry). The best way to be ready is to practice and practice and practice and practice. It’s like learning to drive a car. At first you’re too aware of your foot on the gas, the position of your hand on the wheel, etc; but, after driving for a little while, these things become subconscious. In the same way, when you walk into a station, you could be so worried about how you’ll do your introduction and gain consent, and remembering to wash your hands, and getting equipment and and and and and; the anxiety affects your confidence and your competence. If you practice enough, then no matter what they throw at you, you will get most of the points because the process will be second nature to you. Practice on your roommates, friends, family members, patients with a doctor's help...when appropriate... Even your stuffed animals if you're really desperate. DO NOT leave practicing for these practicals to the last minute; and if you do, make sure you go through every thing over and over again until you’re explaining examinations in your sleep. NOTE: When I'm practicing for OSCE alone, I record myself over and over again and play it back to myself and criticize it, and then practice againn. 9.Consistency You don’t necessarily have to study in the same place every day; however, it is always good to have some level of routine. Some examples include: waking up/sleeping at the same time everyday, going for a run at the same time every day, having the same study routine, etc. Repetition is a good way to keep your brain focused on new activities because, like I said before, the more you repeat things, the more they become second nature to you. Hope these tips are of some use to you; if not, feel free to sound off in the comments some alternate ways to get through exams. Remember that while exams are stressful, this is the time where you build your character and find out what you’re truly capable of. When you drop your pen after that final exam, you want to feel satisfied and relieved, not regretful. Happy Studying ?  
Mary
over 8 years ago
Preview 300x300
9
247

Shoulder Muscles

This image is part of our online anatomy trainer. We are happy to share it with the meducation community. Stop worrying about learning anatomy and start doing it the efficient way. Sign up at [www.kenhub.com](https://www.kenhub.com "www.kenhub.com") to pass your next anatomy exam with ease.  
Niels Hapke
over 8 years ago
Preview 300x218
9
438

Shoulder Muscles, Ligaments & Vessels - Anterior and Posterior Views

This image is part of our online anatomy trainer. We are happy to share it with the meducation community. Stop worrying about learning anatomy and start doing it the efficient way. Sign up at [www.kenhub.com](https://www.kenhub.com "www.kenhub.com") to pass your next anatomy exam with ease.  
Niels Hapke
over 8 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 2njk5o?1444774020
4
1355

LWW: Case Of The Month - April 2013

This month’s case is by David R Bell PhD, co-author of Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 3e (ISBN: 9781451110395) For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/Rhoades4e, with 15% off using the discount code: MEDUCATION. The case below is followed by a quiz question, allowing you a choice of diagnoses. Select the one letter section that best describes the patient’s condition. The Case A 28-year old woman has an unremarkable pregnancy through her first 28 weeks of gestation, with normal weight gain and no serious complications. She has no previous history of diabetes, hypertension of other systemic disease before or during her current pregnancy. During her 30-week checkup, her blood pressure measures 128/85, and she complains about feeling slightly more “bloated” than usual with swelling in her legs that seems to get more uncomfortable as the day goes on. Her obsterician recommends that she get more bed rest, stay off her feet as much as possible and return for evaluation in one week. At the one-week follow-up, the patient presents with noticable”puffiness” in her face, and a blood pressure of 145/95. She complains she has been developing headaches, sporadic blurred vision, right-sided discomfort and some shortness of breath. She has gained more than 10 lb (4.5kg) in the past week. A urinalysis on the patient revelas no glucose but a 3+ reading for protein. Her obstetrician decides to admit her immediately to a local tertiary care hospital for further evaluation. Over the next 24 hours, the patient’s urine output is recorded as 500mL and contains 6.8 grams of protein. Her plasma albumin level is 3.1 g/dl, hemacrit 48%, indirect bilirubin 1.5mg/dl and blood platelets=77000/uL, respectively. Her blood pressure is now 190/100. It is decided to try to deliver the foetus. The expelled placenta is small and shows signs of widespread ischmic damage. Within a week of delivery, the mother’s blood pressure returns to normal, and her oedema subsides. One month later, the mother shows no ill effects of thos later-term syndrome. Question What is the clinical diagnosis of this patient’s condition and its underlying pathophysiology? A. Gestational Hypertension B. Preeclampsia C. Gestational Diabetes D. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava Answer The correct answer is "B. Preeclampsia". The patient’s symptoms and laboratory findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Preeclampsia, which is a condition occurring in some pregnancies that causes life-threatening organ and whole body regulatory malfunctions. The patient’s negative urine glucose is inconsistent with gestational diabetes. Gestational hypertension or vena caval compression cannot explain all of the patient findings. The patient has three major abnormal findings- generalised oedema, hypertension and proteinuria which are all common in preeclampsia. Although sequalae of a normal pregnancy can include water and salt retention, bloating, modest hypertension and leg swelling (secondary to capillary fluid loss from increased lower limb capillary hydrostatic pressure due to compression of the inferior vena cava by the growing foetus/uterus), oedema in the head and upper extremities, a rapid 10 pound weight gain and shortness of breath suggests a generalized and serious oedematous state. The patient did not have hypertension before or within 20 weeks gestation (primary hypertension) and did not develop hypertension after the 20th week of pregnancy with no other abnormal findings (gestational hypertension). Hypertension with proteinuria occurring beyond the 20th week of pregnancy however is a hallmark of preeclampsia. In addition, the patient has hemolysis (elevated bilirubin and LDH levels), elevated liver enzyme levels and thrombocytopenia. This is called the HELLP syndrome (HELLP = Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets.), and is considered evidence of serious patient deterioration in preeclampsia. A urine output of 500 ml in 24 hours is 1/2 to 1/4 of normal output in a hydrated female and indicates renal insufficiency. Protein should never be found in the urine and indicates loss of capillaries integrity in glomeruli which normally are not permeable to proteins. The patient has substantial 24 urine protein loss and hypoalbuminemia. However, generally plasma albumin levels must drop below 2.5 gm/dl to decrease plasma oncotic pressure enough to cause general oedema. The patient’s total urinary protein loss was insufficient in this regard. Capillary hyperpermeability occurs with preeclampsia and, along with hypertension, could facilitate capillary water efflux and generalized oedema. However myogenic constriction of pre-capillary arterioles could reduce the effect of high blood pressure on capillary water efflux. An early increase in hematocrit in this patient suggests hemoconcentration which could be caused by capillary fluid loss but the patient’s value of 48 is unremarkable and of little diagnostic value because increased hematocrit occurs in both preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. PGI2, PGE2 and NO, produced during normal pregnancy, cause vasorelaxation and luminal expansion of uterine arteries, which supports placental blood flow and development. Current theory suggests that over production of endothelin, thromboxane and oxygen radicals in preeclampsia antagonize vasorelaxation while stimulating platelet aggregation, microthrombi formation and endothelial destruction. These could cause oedema, hypertension, renal/hepatic deterioration and placental ischemia with release of vasotoxic factors. The patient’s right-sided pain is consistent with liver pathology (secondary to hepatic DIC or oedematous distention). Severe hypertension in preeclampsia can lead to maternal end organ damage, stroke, and death. Oedematous distension of the liver can cause hepatic rupture and internal hemorrhagic shock. Having this patient carry the baby to term markedly risks the life of the mother and is not considered current acceptable clinical practice. Delivery of the foetus and termination of the pregnancy is the only certain way to end preeclampsia. Read more This case is by David R Bell PhD, co-author of Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 3e (ISBN: 9781451110395) For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/Rhoades4e. Save 15% (and get free P&P) on this, and a whole host of other LWW titles at (lww.co.uk)[http://lww.co.uk] when you use the code MEDUCATION when you check out! About LWW/ Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (LWW) is a leading publisher of high-quality content for students and practitioners in medical and related fields. Their text and review products, eBooks, mobile apps and online solutions support students, educators, and instiutions throughout the professional’s career. LWW are proud to partner with Meducation.  
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
over 8 years ago
1
0
23

What might cause intermittent pain in cervical region?

I saw a 40 year female computer technician complaining of intermittent pain in the cervical region, radiating to right upper extremity to the lateral 2 fingers. The pain aggrevates on continue overhead activities.  
raminder kaur
almost 9 years ago