Teaches the mnemonic CRITOE (also known as CRITOL) used to remember the names and order of the elbow ossification center appearances. Includes two abnormal case examples with annotations.
almost 9 years ago
Introduction GPs for a little while have been asked to compare each other’s outpatient referrals rates. The idea is that this peer to peer open review will help us understand each others referral patterns. For some reason and due to a natural competitive nature of human behaviour, I think we have these peer to peer figures put to us to try to get us to refer less into hospital outpatients. It’s always hard to benchmark GP surgeries but outpatient referral benchmarking is particularly poor for several reasons It's Very Difficult to Normalise Surgeries Surgeries have different mortalities morbidities ages and other confounding factors that it becomes very hard to create an algorithm to create a weighting factor to properly compare one surgery against another. There Are Several Reasons For The Referral I’ll go into more detail on this point later but there are several reasons why doctors refer patients into hospital which can range from: doctors knowing a lot about the condition and picking up subtle symptoms and signs lesser experienced doctors would have ignored; all the way to not knowing about the condition and needing some advice from an expert in the condition. We Need To Look At The Bigger Picture The biggest killer to our budget is non-elective admissions and it’s the one area where patient, commissioner and doctor converge. Patients want to keep out of hospital, it’s cheaper for the NHS and Doctors don’t like the lack of continuity when patients go in. For me I see every admission to hospital as a fail. Of course it’s more complex than this and it might be totally appropriate but if we work on this concept backwards, it will help us more. Likewise if we try to reduce outpatient referrals because we are pressurised to, they may end up in hospitalisation and cost the NHS £10,000s rather than £100s as an outpatient. We need to look at the bigger picture and refer especially if we believe that referrals will lead to less hospitalisation of patients further down the line. To put things into perspective 2 symptoms patients present which I take very seriously are palpitations in the elderly and breathlessness. Both symptoms are very real and normally lead to undiagnosed conditions which if we don’t tackle and diagnose early enough will cause patients to deteriorate and end up in hospital. Education, Education, Education When I first went into commissioning as a lead in 2006 I had this idea of getting to the bottom of why GPs refer patients to outpatients. The idea being if we knew why, we would know how to best tackle specialities. I asked my GPs to record which speciality to refer to and why they referred over a 7 month period. The reason for admission was complex but we divided them up into these categories: 2nd care input required for management of the condition. We know about the condition but have drawn the line with what we can do in primary care. An example of this is when we’ve done a 24 hour tape and found a patient has 2sec pauses and needs a pace maker. 2nd care input required for diagnosis. We think this patient has these symptoms which are related to this condition but don’t really know about the diagnosis and need help with this. An example of this is when a patient presents with diarrhoea to a gastroenterologist There could be several reasons for this and we need help from the gastroenterologist to confirm the diagnosis via a colonscopy and ogd etc. Management Advice. We know what the patient has but need help with managing the condition. For example uncontrolled heart failure or recurrent sinusitis. Consultant to Consultant Referral. As advised between consultants. Patient Choice. Sometimes the patient just wants to see the hospital doctor. The results are enclosed here in Excel and displayed below. Please click on the graph thumbnail below. Reasons For Referrals Firstly a few disclaimers and thoughts. These figures were before any GPSI ENT, Dermatology or Musculosketal services which probably would have made an impact on the figures. There are a few anomalies which may need further thought eg I’m surprised Rheumatology for 2nd input for diagnosis is so low, as frequently I have patients with high ESRs and CRPs which I need advise on diagnoses. Also audiology medicine doesn’t quite look right. The cardiology referral is probably high for management advise due to help on ECG interpretation although this is an assumption. This is just a 7 month period from a subset of 8-9 GPs. Although we were careful to explain each category and it’s meaning, more work might need to be done to clarify the findings further. In my opinion the one area where GPs need to get grips with is management advice as it’s an admission that I know what the patient has and need help on how to treat them. This graph is listed in order of management advice for this reason. So what do you do to respond to this? The most logical step is to education GPs on the left hand side of this graph and invest in your work force but more and more I see intermediary GPSI services which are the provider arm of a commissioning group led to help intercept referrals to hospital. In favour of the data most of the left hand side of the graph have been converted into a GPSI service at one point. In my area what has happened is that referrals rates have actually gone up into these services with no decline in the outgoing speciality as GPs become dis-empowered and just off load any symptoms which patients have which they would have probably had a higher threshold to refer on if these GPSI services were not available. Having said that GPSI services can have a role in the pathway and I’m not averse to their implementation, we just have to find a better way to use their services. 3 Step Plan As I’m not one to just give problems here are my 3 suggestions to help referrals. To have a more responsive Layered Outpatient Service. Setting up an 18 week target for all outpatients is strange, as symptoms and specialities need to be prioritised. For example I don’t mind waiting 20 weeks for a ENT referral on a condition which is bothering me but not life threatening but need to only have a 3 week turn over if I’m breathless with a sudden reduction in my exercise tolerance. This adds an extra layer of complexity but always in the back of my mind it’s about getting them seen sooner to prevent hospitalisation. Education, education, education It’s ironic that the first budget to be slashed in my area was education. We need to education our GPs to empower them to bring the management advice category down as this is the category which will make the biggest impact to improving health care. In essence we need to focus on working on the left hand side of this graph first. Diagnose Earlier and Refer Appropriately The worst case scenario is when GPs refer patients to the wrong speciality and it can happen frequently as symptoms blur between conditions. This leads to delayed diagnosis, delayed management and you guessed it, increased hospitalisation. The obvious example is whether patients with breathlessness is caused by heart or lung or is psychogenic. As GPs we need to work up patients appropriately and make a best choice based on the evidence in front of us. Peer to peer GP delayed referral letter analysis groups have a place in this process. Conclusion At the end of the day it's about appropriate referrals always, not just a reduction. Indeed for us to get a grip on the NHS Budgets as future Clinical Commissioners, I would expect outpatient referrals to go up at the expense of non-elective, as then you are looking at patients being seen and diagnosed earlier and kept out of hospital.
almost 9 years ago
In hospital today, while I was taking a patient's blood pressure, another student asked if she could take her pressure on the other arm to practice. The patient didn't mind, but I thought it might be dangerous. Is this dangerous? What would happen if we pumped the cuff on both arms at the same time? Also, would this give an incorrect reading?
over 9 years ago
Orientation, Memor This patient has difficulty with orientation questions. The day of the week is correct but he misses the month and date. He is oriented to place. Orientation mistakes are not localizing but can be due to problems with memory, language, judgement, attention or concentration. The patient has good recent memory (declarative memory) as evidenced by the recall of three objects but has difficulty with long term memory as evidenced by the difficulty recalling the current and past presidents. Attention-working memor The patient has difficulty with digit span backwards, spelling backwards and giving the names of the months in reverse order. This indicates a problem with working memory and maintaining attention, both of which are frontal lobe functions. Judgement-abstract reasoning The patient gives the correct answer for a house on fire and his answers for similarities are also good. He has problems with proverb interpretation. His answers are concrete and consist of rephrasing the proverb or giving a simple consequence of the action in the proverb. Problems with judgement, abstract reasoning, and executive function can be seen in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Set generatio Set generation tests word fluency and frontal lobe function. The patient starts well but abruptly stops after only four words. Most individuals can give more then 10 words in one minute. Receptive languag Patients with a receptive aphasia (Wernicke’s) cannot comprehend language. Their speech output is fluent but is devoid of meaning and contains nonsense syllables or words (neologisms). Their sentences are usually lacking nouns and there are paraphasias (one word substituted for another). The patient is usually unaware of their language deficit and prognosis for recovery is poor. This patient’s speech is fluent and some of her sentences even make sense but she also has nonsense sentences, made up of words and parts of words. She can’t name objects (anomia). She doesn’t have a pure or complete receptive aphasia but pure receptive aphasias are rare. Expressive languag This patient with expressive aphasia has normal comprehension but her expression of language is impaired. Her speech output is nonfluent and often limited to just a few words or phases. Grammatical words such as prepositions are left out and her speech is telegraphic. She has trouble saying “no ifs , ands or buts”. Her ability to write is also effected Patients with expressive aphasia are aware of their language deficit and are often frustrated by it. Recovery can occur but is often incomplete with their speech consisting of short phrases or sentences containing mainly nouns and verbs. Praxi The patient does well on most of the tests of praxis. At the very end when he is asked to show how to cut with scissors he uses his fingers as the blades of the scissors instead of acting like he is holding onto the handles of the scissors and cutting. This can be an early finding of inferior parietal lobe dysfunction. Gnosi With his right hand the patient has more difficulty identifying objects then with his left hand. One must be careful in interpreting the results of this test because of the patient’s motor deficits but there does seem to be astereognosis on the right, which would indicate left parietal lobe dysfunction. This is confirmed with graphesthesia where he definitely has more problems identifying numbers written on the right hand then the left (agraphesthesia of the right hand). Dominant parietal lobe functio This patient has right-left confusion and difficulty with simple arithmetic. These are elements of the Gertsmann syndrome, which is seen in lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. The full syndrome consists of right-left confusion, finger agnosia, agraphia and acalculia.
almost 11 years ago
Topics This afternoon, I’d like to talk about an important complication of delivery, called shoulder dystocia. Shoulder Dystocia… View Text Here Delivery of the Posterior Arm Video… View Free Video Here Commercial Links: Shoulder Dystocia Vide 5-Minute Vaginal Delivery Vide 5-Minute Episiotomy Video Free Links: OBGYN-10 OBGYN-101 Gray Haired Note Shoulder Dystocia in the Global Library of Women’s Medicin Brookside Associates Medical Education Division
Mike Hughey, MD
over 11 years ago
A Tularemia lesion on the dorsal skin of the right hand, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.
Tularemia is caused by the bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Symptoms vary depending on how the person was exposed to the disease, and as is shown here, can include skin ulcers.
Public Health Information Library
over 11 years ago
This is a nice video for explaining the shoulder examination and referencing potential findings to common injuries or complaints. It follows the typical look, feel move, special test structure.
almost 12 years ago
The i-LIMB Hand™ is the world’s first full articulating bionic hand, delivering compliant grip, wraparound fingers, thumb rotation and full hand palmar grip. It brings a new dimension to upper limb prosthetics, with levels of flexibility, durability, aesthetic presentation an overall functionality that have never been seen before. For the first time, a prosthetic hand delivers grip configurations that behave in almost every respect like its natural counterpart, transforming both the capabilitie and the confidence of users.
almost 12 years ago
Have a look at at these three pages that go with this podcast on the Axilla and Cubital fossa: www.instantanatomy.net/arm/areas/cubitalfossa/superficial.html www.instantanatomy.net/arm/areas/cubitalfossa/deep.html www.instantanatomy.net/arm/areas/axilla/topography.html
almost 12 years ago
This image shows a dislocated shoulder with a fracture through the surgical neck of humerus. The patient is at high risk of axillary nerve injury. The axillary nerve supplies deltoids but this is difficult to test in these conditions - luckily it also supplies an area of skin over the shoulder known as the regimental badge - this must be tested before and after any procedure involving the shoulder.
about 12 years ago