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WeightsAndMeasures

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Www.bmj
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Soft drink that claims to burn 200 calories a can is referred to trading standards

The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) has referred two companies to Trading Standards in a bid to tackle advertisers who persistently make misleading health claims.  
bmj.com
over 7 years ago
Www.bmj
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Should we advise patients with sutures not to swim?

Patients often ask when they can swim after a wound has been sutured. Despite such an apparently simple query, evidence supporting any answer seems to be lacking. Many patient information sites advise against swimming after the suturing of wounds1 but fail to provide evidence to support this recommendation. Advice is broad ranging and inconsistent.1 Current information ranges from waiting until the sutures are removed and the wound has healed1 to abstaining from swimming for six weeks postoperatively.2 Patients with external frame fixators are advised that it is permissible to swim in a chlorinated pool or clean sea water, although in practice this is difficult to ascertain and is far from an objective measure, once the pin sites have healed.3 Evidence to back up the advice is scarce.  
bmj.com
over 7 years ago
Www.bmj
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Should we advise patients with sutures not to swim?

Patients often ask when they can swim after a wound has been sutured. Despite such an apparently simple query, evidence supporting any answer seems to be lacking. Many patient information sites advise against swimming after the suturing of wounds1 but fail to provide evidence to support this recommendation. Advice is broad ranging and inconsistent.1 Current information ranges from waiting until the sutures are removed and the wound has healed1 to abstaining from swimming for six weeks postoperatively.2 Patients with external frame fixators are advised that it is permissible to swim in a chlorinated pool or clean sea water, although in practice this is difficult to ascertain and is far from an objective measure, once the pin sites have healed.3 Evidence to back up the advice is scarce.  
bmj.com
over 7 years ago
Www.bmj
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Urinary incontinence in women

Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive.  
bmj.com
about 7 years ago
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Managing quality in community health care services

From children’s services to care for older people and end-of-life support, the community sector plays a key part in meeting the challenges facing our health and care system. This report presents findings from a small-scale study into how quality is managed in community services. Community health care services provide vital care out of hospital for millions of people. From children’s services to care for older people and end-of-life support, the community sector plays a key part in meeting the challenges facing our health and care system. This report presents findings from a small-scale study into how quality is managed in community services. It explores how community care providers define and measure quality and recommends important next steps to support better measurement and management of quality.  
The King's Fund
almost 7 years ago
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Are anti-smoking measures working? - BBC News

The UK has some of the strongest smoking legislation in the world. But do we know what impact they have had on smoking rates?  
BBC News
over 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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Assessment and management of alcohol use disorders

Alcohol use disorders exist across a spectrum, and public health measures to reduce the drinking of a whole population have considerable health benefits  
bmj.com
over 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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Reforming the Cancer Drug Fund

The Cancer Drug Fund was originally conceived as a temporary measure, until value based pricing for drugs was introduced, to give NHS cancer patients access to drugs not approved by NICE. Spending on these drugs rose from less than the £50m (€63m; $79m) budgeted for the first year in 2010-11 to well over £200m in 2013-14, and the budget for the scheme—now extended for a further two years—will reach £280m by 2016.1 The recent changes to the fund recognise the impossibility, within any sensible budget limit, of providing all the new cancer drugs that offer possible benefit to patients. More radical changes are needed to the working of the fund, given the failure to introduce value based pricing, so that it deals with the underlying problem of inadequate information on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of new cancer drugs when used in the NHS.  
bmj.com
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1eqve0g?1444774030
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LWW: Case Of The Month - May 2013

This month’s case is by Barbara J. Mroz, M.D. and Robin R. Preston, Ph.D., author of Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: .Physiology (ISBN: 9781451175677). For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/PrestonLIR, with 15% off using the discount code: MEDUCATION. The case below is followed by a choice of diagnostic tests. Select the one lettered selection that would be most helpful in diagnosing the patient’s condition. The Case A 54-year-old male 2 pack-per-day smoker presents to your office complaining of cough and shortness of breath (SOB). He reports chronic mild dyspnea on exertion with a daily cough productive of clear mucus. During the past week, his cough has increased in frequency and is now productive of frothy pink-tinged sputum; his dyspnea is worse and he is now short of breath sometimes even at rest. He has had difficulty breathing when lying flat in bed and has spent the past two nights sleeping upright in a recliner. On physical examination, he is a moderately obese male with a blood pressure of 180/80 mm Hg, pulse of 98, and respiratory rate of 22. His temperature is 98.6°F. He becomes winded from climbing onto the exam table. Auscultation of the lungs reveals bilateral wheezing and crackles in the lower posterior lung fields. There is pitting edema in the lower extremities extending up to the knees.  Question Which if the following tests would be most helpful in confirming the correct diagnosis? A. Spirometry B. Arterial blood gas C. Complete blood count D. B-type natriuretic peptide blood test E. Electrocardiogram Answer? The correct answer is B-type natriuretic peptide blood test. Uncomfortable breathing, or feeling short of breath, is a common medical complaint with multiple causes. When approaching a patient with dyspnea, it is helpful to remember that normal breathing requires both a respiratory system that facilitates gas exchange between blood and the atmosphere, and a cardiovascular system that transports O2 and CO¬2 between the lungs and tissues. Dysfunction in either system may cause dyspnea, and wheezing (or bronchospasm) may be present in both cardiac and pulmonary disease. In this patient, the presence of lower extremity edema and orthopnea (discomfort when lying flat) are both suggestive of congestive heart failure (CHF). Elevated blood pressure (systolic of 180) and a cough productive of frothy pink sputum may also be associated symptoms. While wheezing could also be caused by COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in the setting of chronic tobacco use, the additional exam findings of lung crackles and edema plus systolic hypertension are all more consistent with CHF. What does the B-type natriuretic peptide blood test tell us? When the left ventricle (LV) fails to maintain cardiac output (CO) at levels required for adequate tissue perfusion, pathways are activated to increase renal fluid retention. A rising plasma volume increases LV preload and sustains CO via the Frank-Starling mechanism. Volume loading also stimulates cardiomyocytes to release atrial- (ANP) and B-type (BNP) natriuretic peptides. BNP has a longer half-life than ANP and provides a convenient marker for volume loading. Plasma BNP levels are measured using immunoassay; levels >100 pg/mL are suggestive of overload resulting in heart failure. How does heart failure cause dyspnea? Increasing venous pressure increases mean capillary hydrostatic pressure and promotes fluid filtration from the vasculature. Excess filtration from pulmonary capillaries causes fluid accumulation within the alveoli (pulmonary edema) and interferes with normal gas exchange, resulting in SOB. Physical signs and symptoms caused by high volume loading include: (1) Lung crackles, caused by fluid within alveoli (2) Orthopnea. Reclining increases pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure through gravitational effects, worsening dyspnea when lying flat. (3) Pitting dependent edema caused by filtration from systemic capillaries, an effect also influenced by position (causing edema in the lower legs as in our ambulatory patient or in dependent areas like the sacrum in a bedridden patient). What would an electrocardiogram show? Heart failure can result in LV hypertrophy and manifest as a left axis deviation on an electrocardiogram (ECG), but some patients in failure show a normal ECG. An ECG is not a useful diagnostic tool for dyspnea or CHF per se. Wouldn’t spirometry be more suitable for diagnosing the cause of dyspnea in a smoker? Simple spirometry will readily identify the presence of airflow limitation (obstruction) as a cause of dyspnea. It's a valuable test to perform in any smoker and can establish a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if abnormal. While this wheezing patient is an active smoker who could have airflow obstruction, the additional exam findings above point more to a diagnosis of CHF. What would an arterial blood gas show? An arterial blood gas measures arterial pH, PaCO¬2, and PaO2. While both CHF and COPD could cause derangements in the values measured, these abnormalities would not necessarily be diagnostic (e.g., a low PaO2 could be seen in both conditions, as could an elevated PaCO¬2). Would a complete blood count provide useful information? A complete blood count could prove useful if anemia is a suspected cause of dyspnea. Test result BNP was elevated (842 pg/mL), consistent with CHF. Diuretic treatment was initiated to help reduce volume overload and an afterload reducing agent was started to lower blood pressure and improve systolic function.  
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
over 8 years ago
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Precautions For Biologics | Reducing Biologic Risks

To reduce the risk of harmful infections, take these measures before starting biologics.  
arthritis.org
over 6 years ago