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Endocrine System Chart

Useful chart explaining glands and hormones!
almost 3 years ago

The Most Powerful Way to Remember What You Study

Trying to memorize everything you need for your exams and tests can take a long time. However, spaced repetition can help you speed the learning process up s...
11 months ago

Learn about Systolic Murmurs, Diastolic Murmurs, and Extra Heart Sounds

Watch this excellent tutorial by Khan Academy to get to grips with heart sounds.
over 2 years ago

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lecture

Get to grips with the clinical features, pathogenesis and triggers of Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's Disease and other Colitides.  
over 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1n3lsmi?1444774158

How Health Evangelism Can Give Us More Out of Life Than We Can See

As more and more knowledge about our health is becoming evident, people everywhere are looking at new and innovative ways like Health Evangelism as a means of treatment. Getting a clean bill of health is a challenge for many people these days. For that reason many people are looking at different types of health care options that may stray a bit from the traditional but still give the patient needed relief from their physical problems. This is where new approaches have come in to help gain control of many of the medical issues that many people have to face. What is Health Evangelism? The expression ‘health evangelism’ is defined as an applying of the principles of healthful living in a way that includes physical laws that have been set forth by God to act in our lives. This is simply recognizing that God, as the provider of life, created us to function in a very specific way. Many of the physical health problems that we face are a direct result of going against those inborn laws that he set forth. Health Evangelism is a means of identifying those laws and not only using them within but passing them on to others in an evangelizing work. Benefits of Health Evangelism Your knowledge of the physical laws that he has set in motion have been instrumental in helping to improve a number of major health concerns of many people. For example, just coming to an understanding of your diet and how certain foods were designed to nourish your body can help to improve blood sugar health, cholesterol levels, cardiovascular conditioning, and your immune system among other things. Higher Spiritual Plane As you see how this understanding has had a major impact on the improvement of your health you will reach a point where, you will develop a personal relationship with your creator and the things he’s provided. Your care for your health and physical well-being will not be just taking care of yourself but you will come to view it as a part of your worship to your spiritual benefactor. By doing this, you will have reached a higher spiritual level that you may not have discovered otherwise. We have all been wonderfully made and our appreciation for our creation is a demonstration that we are part of something that extends far beyond our own personal world. Learning the details of Health Evangelism can open our eyes to many of the things unseen from the world around us. For more information, visit  
over 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1nftkgk?1444774218

Gin & Tonic Anyone?

It was a Saturday, about tea-time in the quaint village of Athelstaneford, East Lothian. Mrs Alexandria Agutter sat in her cottage, enjoying the delights of the late-summer evening with a glass of gin and tonic. She listlessly sipped from the rather generous pick-me up, no doubt chewing over the happenings of the day. Blast! The taste was much too bitter to her liking. She stood up. And promptly crumpled to the floor in a dizzied heap. It had not been five minutes when a fiery pain gripped her parched throat and in her frenzied turn she watched the bleary room become draped in a gossamery silk. How Dame Agatha would approve. But this is no crime novel, on that fateful day, 24th August 1994, poor Mrs Agutter immortalised herself in the history books of forensic medicine; she was the victim of a revered toxin and a vintage one it was too. She had unwittingly imbibed a G&T laced with a classic poison of antiquity. A clue from the 21st century: do you recall the first Hunger Games film adaption? Those inviting purple-black berries or as Suzanne Collins coined them ‘Nightlock’; a portmanteau of hemlock and Deadly Nightshade. True to the laters’ real life appearance those onscreen fictional fruits played a recurring cameo role. Deadly Nightshade is a perennial shrub of the family Solanaceae and a relative of the humble potato (a member of the Solanus genus). It is a resident of our native woodland and may be found as far afield as Europe, Africa and Western Asia. The 18th century taxonomist, Carl Linnaeus gave the plant an intriguing name in his great Species Plantarum. The genus Atropa is aptly named after one of the three Greek Fates, Atropos. She is portrayed shearing the thread of a mortal’s life so determining the time and manner of its inevitable end. The Italian species name belladona (beautiful woman) refers to the striking mydriatic effect of the plant on the eye. The name pays homage to Pietro Andre Mattioli, a 16th century physician from Sienna, who was allegedly the first to describe the plant’s use among the Venetian glitterati - ladies of fashion favoured the seductive, doe-eyed look. Belladona is poisonous in its entirety. It was from the plant’s roots in 1831, the German apothecary Heinrich F. G. Mein isolated a white, odourless, crystalline powder: it was (surprise, surprise) atropine. Atropine is a chiral molecule. From its natural plant source it exists as a single stereoisomer L-atropine, which also happens to display a chiral potency 50-100 times that of its D-enantiomer. As with many other anaesthetic agents it is administered as a racemic mixture. How strange that atropine now sits among the anaesthetist’s armamentarium, its action as a competitive antimuscarinic to counter vagal stimulation belies its dark history. It was a favourite of Roman housewives seeking retribution against their less than faithful husbands and a staple of the witch’s potion cupboard. Little wonder how belladona became known as the Devil’s plant. Curiouser still it’s also the antidote for other poisons, most notably the organophosphates or nerve gases. On account of its non-selective antagonism, atropine produces a constellation of effects: the inhibition of salivary, lacrimal and sweat glands occurs at low doses; dry mouth and skin are early markers. Pyrexia is a central effect exacerbated by the inability to sweat. Flushing of the face due to skin vessel vasodilatation. Low parasympathetic tone causes a moderate sinus tachycardia. Vision is blurred as the eye becomes dilated, unresponsive to light and accommodation is impaired. Mental disorientation, agitation and ataxia give the impression of drunkedness or a delirium tremens like syndrome. Visual hallucinations, often of butterflies or silk blowing in the wind, are a late feature. It was then that Mr Agutter, seemingly untroubled by the sight of his wife’s problematic situation, proceeded to leave a message with the local practitioner. How fortunate they were to have the vigilant locum check the answering machine and come round to the Agutter’s lodge accompanied by an ambulance crew. The attending paramedic had the presence of mind to pour the remainder of Mrs Agutter’s beverage into a nearby jam jar, while Mr Agutter handed over what he suspected to be the offending ingredient: the bottle of Indian tonic water. As it soon transpired there were seven other casualties in the surrounding countryside of East Lothian – all involving an encounter with tonic water. In fact by some ironic twist of fate, two of the victims were the wife and son of Dr Geoffry Sharwood-Smith, a consultant aneasthetist. Obviously very familiar with the typical toxidrome of anticholinergic agents, he was quick to suspect atropine poisoning. Although for a man of his position with daily access to a sweetshop of drugs, it was not something to draw attention to. Through no small amount of cunning had the poisoner(s) devised the plan. It was elegant; atropine is very bitter. So much so that it can be detected at concentrations of 100 parts per million (0.001%). Those foolish enough to try the berries of belladonna during walks in the woods are often saved by the berry’s sour taste. They are soon spat out. But the quinine in the tonic water was a worthy disguise. The lethal dose for an adult is approximately 90-130mg, however atropine sensitivity is highy variable. In its salt form, atropine sulfate, it is many times more soluble: >100g can be dissolved in 100ml of water. So 1ml may contain roughly tenfold the lethal dose. There ensued a nationwide scare; 50 000 bottles of Safeway branded Indian tonic water were sacrificed. Only six bottles had been contaminated. They had all been purchased, tops unsealed, from the local Safeway in Hunter’s Tryst. Superficially this looked like the handiwork of a psychopath with a certain distaste for the supermarket brand, and amidst the media furore, it did have some verisimilitude: one of the local papers received a letter from 25 year old, Wayne Smith admitting himself as the sole perpetrator. The forensic scientist, Dr Howard Oakley analysed the contents of the bottles. They all contained a non-lethal dose, 11-74mg/litre of atropine except for the Agutter’s, it contained 103mg/litre. The jam jar holding Mrs Agutter’s drink bore even more sinister results, the atropine concentration was 292mg/L. It would appear Mrs Agutter had in some way outstayed her welcome. But she lived. A miscalculation on the part of the person who had added an extra seasoning of atropine to her drink. According to the numbers she would have had to swallow a can’s worth (330ml) to reach the lethal dose. Thankfully she had taken no more than 50mg. The spotlight suddenly fell on Dr Paul Agutter. He was a lecturer of biochemistry at the nearby University of Napier, which housed a research syndicate specialising in toxicology. CCTV footage had revealed his presence at the Safeway in Hunter’s Tryst and there was eye witness evidence of him having placed bottles onto the shelves. Atropine was also detected by the forensic investigators on a cassete case in his car. Within a matter of two weeks he would be arrested for the attempted murder of his wife. Despite the calculated scheme to delay emergency services and to pass the blame onto a non-existent mass poisoner, he had not accomplished the perfect murder. Was there a motive? Allegedly his best laid plans were for the sake of a mistress, a mature student from Napier. He served seven years of a twelve year sentence. Astonishingly, upon his release from Glenochil prison in 2002, he contacted his then former wife proclaiming his innocence and desire to rejoin her in their Scottish home. A proposition she was not very keen on. Dr Agutter was employed by Manchester University as a lecturer of philosophy and medical ethics. He is currently an associate editor of the online journal Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. We will never know the true modus operandi as Dr Agutter never confessed to the crime. Perhaps all this story can afford is weak recompense for the brave followers of the Dry January Campaign. Oddly these sort of incidents never appear in their motivational testimonials. Acknowledgements Emsley J. Molecules of Murder. 2008, Cambridge, RSC Publishing, p.46-67. Lee MR. Solanaceae IV: Atropa belladona, deadly nightshade. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. March 2007; 37: 77-84. Illustrator Edward Wong This blog post is a reproduction of an article published in the The Medical Student Newspaper January issue, 2014  
James Wong
over 4 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1v5yv6r?1444773917

Cultural Change Could Be Just What's Needed

Cultural change could be just what's needed All of us, at some time, will have experiences of being a patient. At such times we might feel vulnerable as we look to doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals for help and advice. While most of our experiences will be positive, a significant minority of us will experience difficulties in our interactions with healthcare professionals. For example last year, following a spate of similar reports across the UK, the Older People's Commissioner for Wales found consistent issues concerning the lack of dignity and respect patients received in hospital. These situations can cause real distress for patients, undermine the effectiveness of clinical treatment and sometimes impacts on how fast we might recover. I am interested in how this state of affairs comes about within an NHS that promotes respect, dignity and compassion for all. My research examines what happens to healthcare students during their training in clinical settings that means they sometimes have to be reminded that the person in front of them is a human who deserves compassion and respect. Today's healthcare students are explicitly taught about what comprises professional values and behaviours. However, a large part of learning to become a healthcare professional occurs within the NHS as they observe their seniors – who act as powerful role models – interacting with patients. Sometimes these role models were trained many years ago and belong to a different culture of medicine with different ways of doing things. People who belong to the same cultural group tend to embrace common characteristics such as language, customs and values. In doing this they embrace a common "cultural identity" and achieve a sense of belonging. Likewise, healthcare students tend to embrace common characteristics of their chosen profession. They look to their seniors for guidance about how to behave. But what if their seniors belong to a different era where things that were acceptable then may no longer be acceptable now? One strand of my research examines professionalism dilemma situations. These are situations in which healthcare students find themselves witnessing or participating in something unethical or unprofessional. These include witnessing, and sometimes participating in, breaches of patient safety and dignity. Students often report experiencing distress in such situations as they know the right way to behave, but feel unable to do so for some reason. In their stories, students frequently report feeling unable to speak out for fear of receiving poor grades as their seniors are also their teachers, because they are low in the pecking order or because speaking out might hamper their future career. So how can we support tomorrow's healthcare students to become ethical and compassionate professionals? Revalidation for doctors is coming into force and involves patient and colleague feedback. But our research suggests that, by itself, this is insufficient to change behaviours. We urge healthcare schools to provide students with a safe place to share their stories with each other and with ethical role models so they can begin to make sense of their experiences, share good practice and ways to resist bad practice. Most of all, we suggest that cultural change should occur from within. Patients, patient advocates, students and healthcare professionals should join together to examine how language, practices and values occurring within clinical settings can be developed to improve patient safety and dignity for all.  
Dr Lynn Monrouxe
over 5 years ago
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Hormone Map

Hormone Map schematic. Looks a bit over whelming at first and may require some color coding by you for mechanisms of action (Gq, cAMP, IP3/DAG, etc..), but proved useful for Exam time.  
Andre Freire
over 4 years ago

Antibiotics chart

Spectrum of antimicrobials
over 2 years ago

Common Endocrine Hormones

Great flow chart!
almost 3 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1ulwayv?1444774125

How to Study

Because of the snail's pace that education has developed at, most of us don't really know how to study because we've been told lectures and reading thousands of pages is the best way to go, and no one really wants to do that all day. That's not the only way to study. My first year of medical school... You know when you start the year so committed, then eventually you skip lectures once or twice... then you just binge on skipping? Kinda like breaking a diet "Two weeks in: oh I'll just have a bite of your mac n' cheese... oh is that cake? and doritos? and french fries? Give me all of it all at once." Anyways, when that happened in first year I started panicking after a while; but after studying with friends who had attended lectures, I found they were almost as clueless as I was. I'm not trying to say lectures are useless... What my fellow first years and I just didn't know was how to use the resources we had– whether we were keen beans or lazy pants, or somewhere in between. I still struggle with study habits, but I've formed some theories since and I'm going to share these with you. Reading While reading should not be the entire basis of your studying, it is the best place to start. Best to start with the most basic and detailed sources (ex.Tortora if it's a topic I'm new to, then Kumar and Clark, and Davidson's are where I usually start, but there are tons of good ones out there!). I do not feel the need to read every section of a chapter, it's up to the reader's discretion to decide what to read based on objectives. If you do not have time for detailed reading, there are some wonderful simplified books that will give you enough to get through exams (ICT and crash course do some great ones!). I start with this if exams are a month or less away. Later, it's good to go through books that provide a summarized overview of things, to make sure you've covered all bases (ex. Flesh and Bones, the 'Rapid ______" series, oxford clinical handbook, etc.). These are also good if you have one very specific question about a subject. Video Tutorials**** After all that reading, you want the most laid back studying you can find. This is where Meducation and Youtube become your best friend. (I can post a list of my favourite channels if anyone is interested).I always email these people to thank them. I know from the nice people that run this website that it takes a tremendous amount of effort and a lot of the time and it's just us struggling students who have much to gain. Everyone should use video tutorials. It doesn't matter if you're all Hermione with your books; every single person can benefit from them, especially for osce where no book can fully portray what you're supposed to do/see/hear during examinations. Some youtube channels I like Lectures We're all thinking it, lectures can be boring. Especially when the speaker has text vomited all over their slides (seriously, If I can't read it from the back of the lecture hall, there's too much!. It's even worse when they're just reading everything to you, and you're frantically trying to write everything down. Here's the thing, you're not supposed to write everything down. If you can print the slides beforehand or access them on your laptop/ipad/whatever you use and follow along, do that. You're meant to listen, nod along thinking (oh yes I remember this or oooh that's what happens? or Oh I never came across that particular fact, interesting!). It's also meant to be a chance for you to discuss interesting cases from the a doctor's experiences. If you're lucky to have really interactive lecturers, interact! Don't be shy! Even if you make a fool of yourself, you're more likely to remember what you learned better. If you happen to be in a lecture you're completely unprepared for (basically 70% of the time?). Think of it as "throwing everything at a wall and hoping something sticks." Pull up the slides on your smart phone if you have one, only take notes on interesting or useful things you hear the speaker say. If all else fails, these lectures where tell you what topics to go home and read about. Tutorials My university has gradually increased its use of tutorials, and I couldn't be happier. Make the most out of these because they are a gift. Having the focused attention of a knowledgeable doctor or professor in a small group for a prolonged period of time is hard to lock down during hospital hours. Ask lots of questions, raise topics you're having trouble understanding, this is your protected time. Discussions In group study activities, this is particularly hard to make the most of when everyone in your group varies in studying progression, but even so, it can be beneficial. Other people's strengths might be your weaknesses and vise versa– and it's always helpful to hear an explanation about something from someone at your level, because they will neither under or over estimate you, and they will not get offended when you tell them "ok I get it that's enough." Myself and 3 of my medic friends would meet once a week the month or two leading up to exams at one of our houses to go through OSCE stations and concepts we didn't understand (food helps too). Besides peer discussions, you should take advantage of discussions with doctors. If the doctor is willing to give you their time, use it well. Practice Questions I am a practice question book hoarder. Practice questions book not only test and reaffirm your knowledge, which is often hard to find if your exams are cumulative and you have little to no quizes/tests. They also have concise, useful explanations at the back and, they tell you where the gaps in your studying are. For my neuro rotation, the doctor giving the first and last lecture gave us a quiz, it was perfect for monitoring our progress, and the same technique can be used in your studies. Practical Clinical Experiences If you freeze up during exams and blank out, and suddenly the only forms of text floating around your brain are Taylor Swift lyrics, these are bound to come to your rescue! "Learn by doing." Take as many histories as you can, do as many clinical exams in hospital, and on your friends to practice, as you can, see and DO as many clinical procedures as you can; these are all easy and usually enjoyable forms of studying. Teaching Have you ever had an experience where one of your peers asks you about something and you give them a fairly good explanation then you think to yourself "Oh wow, I had no idea that was actually in there. High five me." If there is ever an opportunity to teach students in the years below you or fellow students in your year, do it! It will force you to form a simplified/accurate explanation; and once you've taught others, it is sure to stick in your head. Even if it's something you don't really know about, committing yourself to teaching others something forces you to find all the necessary information. Sometimes if there's a bunch of topics that nobody in my study group wants to do, we each choose one, go home and research it, and explain it to each other to save time. If you're doing this for a presentation, make handouts, diagrams or anything else that can be used as an aid.  
over 4 years ago

Learn 12 Cranial Nerves in 5mins (The Easy Way)

If you want the PDF of the 12 Cranial Nerves --- it can be purchased here I reduced the length of my o...  
over 4 years ago

ECG Interpretation - Atrio-Ventricular Block Atrial depolarisation is transmitted to the ventricular myocardium by the AV node and intraventricular conducting system. The time between the onset of atrial depolarisation and the release of depolarisation into the ventricular myocardium from the terminal branches of the conducting system is represented by the PR interval on the ECG. Dysfunction of the AV node or diffuse damage to components of the ventricular conducting system can result in a delay or even failure of transmission of atrial depolarisation into the ventricular muscle mass. This situation is referred to as atrioventricular or AV block. Three degrees of AV block are recognised. First degree AV block is defined by transmission of all P waves to the ventricular myocardium but with prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of normal on the ECG. Second degree AV block is defined by failure of conduction of some P waves into the ventricles. In third degree or 'complete' AV block, no P waves are transmitted to the ventricular myocardium. is a web resource that provides Videos and Interactive Games to teach the complex nature of ECG / EKG. 3D reconstructions and informative 2D animations provide the ideal learning environment for this field. For more videos and interactive games, visit Information provided by and associated videos is for informational purposes only; it is not intended as a substitute for advice from your own medical team. The information provided by and associated videos is not to be used for diagnosing or treating any health concerns you may have - please contact your physician or health care professional for all your medical needs.  
ECG Teacher
over 4 years ago

The neurology of Sjögren's syndrome and the rheumatology of peripheral neuropathy and myelitis

Stream The neurology of Sjögren's syndrome and the rheumatology of peripheral neuropathy and myelitis by BMJ talk medicine from desktop or your mobile device  
over 4 years ago

Anatomy of the upper respiratory system

Illustration of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea and esophagus.  
Keiran Goreeba
almost 3 years ago

Cardiac arrhythmias

Includes description, symptoms and an ECG rhythm strip typical of that arrhythmia.  
Laura R Barry
over 4 years ago
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Bacteria Mind Map

Julia Marr
over 4 years ago