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Epilepsy Tutorial

Overview of the different types and the classification of epilepsy.  
Sam Lang
over 4 years ago
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24 hour ambulatory impedance pH test | Radiology Case |

There is an esophageal pH impedance probe in situ.
about 1 month ago

11 pairs of ribs and lumbosacral transitional vertebra | Radiology Case |

Since 11 rib pairs can be counted on the upright frontal chest film, one can confidently determine that the lumbosacral transitional vertebra is, in fact, a sacralised L5 vertebra.
about 1 month ago

Cardiology Quick Facts and Mnemonics for Health Professionals

15 Cardiology Quick Facts and Mnemonics for Health Professionals. Quick way to learn and remember important cardiology facts. Perfect for all health sciences...
over 3 years ago

Mitral Valve Stenosis Explained Clearly

Understand mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation with this clear explanation by Dr. Roger Seheult. Includes discussion on the signs and symptoms, diagnosis...
almost 4 years ago

Blood supply of the heart

After watching this tutorial you will be able to identify the origin of right and left coronary arteries from aortic sinuses and describe the course of the right coronary artery and its common branches.
almost 3 years ago
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Wikipedia - help or hindrance?

It’s quick, it’s easy and we’ve all done it. Don’t blush, whether it’s at our leisure or behind the consultant’s back we can confess to having used the world’s sixth most popular website. You might have seen it, sitting pride of place on the podium of practically any Google result page. Of course, it’s the tell tale sign of one of Web 2.0’s speediest and most successful offspring, Wikipedia. Now for fear of patronizing a generation who have sucked on the teat of this resource since its fledgling years, the formalities will remain delightfully short. Wikipedia is the free, multilingual, online encyclopedia, which harnesses the collective intelligence of the world’s internet users to produce a collaboratively written and openly modifiable body of knowledge. The technology it runs on is a highly flexible web application called wiki. It is open-source software; hence the explosion of wiki sites all united under the banner of combined authorship. Anyone with internet access can edit the content and do so with relative anonymity. It would be unthinkable that a source, which does not prioritize the fidelity of its content, could possibly play a role in medical education. How ironic it seems that medical students can waste hours pondering which textbook to swear their allegiance for the forthcoming rotation, yet not spare a second thought typing their next medical query into Wikipedia. Evidently it has carved itself a niche and not just among medical students, but healthcare professionals as well. According to a small qualitative study published in the International Journal of Medical Informatics, 70% of their sample, which comprised of graduates from London medical schools currently at FY2 and ST1 level, used Wikipedia in a given week for ‘clinical purposes’. These ranged from general background reading to double checking a differential and looking up medications. We are so ensnared by the allure of instantaneous enlightenment; it’s somewhat comparable to relieving an itch. "Just Google it..." is common parlance. We need that quick fix. When the consultant asks about his or her favourite eponymous syndrome or you’re a little short on ammunition before a tutorial, the breadth and ease-of-use offered by a service accessible from our phones is a clandestine escape. The concept of Wikipedia, the idea that its articles are in a way living bodies because of the continual editing process, is its strength. Conversely textbooks are to a degree outmoded by the time they reach their publication date. While I commend the contributors of Wikipedia for at least trying to bolster their pages with references to high impact journals, it does not soften the fact that the authorship is unverifiable. Visitors, lay people, registered members under some less than flattering pseudonyms such as Epicgenius and Mean as custard, don’t impart the sense of credibility students (or for that matter patients)expect from an encyclopedia. Since the prestige of direct authorship if off the cards, it does beg the question of what is their motivation and I’m afraid ‘the pursuit of knowledge and improving humanity’s lot' is the quaint response. There is a distinct lack of transparency. It has become a playground where a contributor can impress his/her particular theory regarding a controversial subject unchallenged. Considering there is no direct ownership of the article, who then has the authority to curate the multiple theories on offer and portray a balanced view? Does an edit war ensue? It is not unheard of for drug representatives to tailor articles detailing their product and erase the less pleasant side-effects. Obviously Wikipedia is not unguarded, defences are in place and there is such a thing as quality control. Recent changes will come under the scrutiny of more established editors, pages that are particularly prone to vandalism are vetted and there are a special breed of editors called administrators, who uphold a custodial post, blocking and banishing rebellious editors. A study featured in the First Monday journal put Wikipedia to the test by deliberately slipping minor errors into the entries of past philosophers. Within 48 hours half of these errors had been addressed. Evidently, the service has the potential to improve over time; provided there is a pool of committed and qualified editors. Wikiproject Medicine is such a group of trusted editors composed primarily of doctors, medical students, nurses, clinical scientists and patients. Since 2004, its two hundred or so participants have graded an excess of 25,000 health-related articles according to quality parameters not dissimilar to peer review. However, the vast majority of articles are in a state of intermediate quality, somewhere between a stub and featured article. Having some degree of professional input towards a service as far reaching as Wikipedia will no doubt have an impact on global health, particularly in developing countries where internet access is considered a luxury. March this year saw the medical pages of the English Wikipedia reach a lofty 249,386,264 hits. Its ubiquity is enviable; it maintains a commanding lead over competing medical websites. The accessibility of this information has catapulted Wikipedia far beyond its scope as a humble encyclopedia and into a medical resource. Patients arrive to clinics armed with the printouts. As future doctors we will have to be just that one step ahead, to recognise the limitations of a source that does not put a premium on provenance but is nevertheless the current public health tool of choice. Illustrator Edward Wong This blog post is a reproduction of an article published in the Medical Student Newspaper, November 2013 issue.  
James Wong
almost 5 years ago

What is heart failure?

Visit us ( for health and medicine content or ( for MCAT...
over 3 years ago

Ischemic Stroke Evaluation

When performing your history and physical on a patient with a suspected stroke, there are a few things you need to remember.
about 3 years ago

Immunodeficiency Disorders Slideshow

A detailed slideshow covering manifestations, symptoms and much more.
about 3 years ago


Confidence has been designed to make revising enjoyable and easy. From your personalised dashboard to our in-depth analytics, you'll find using Confidence takes the stress out of revision.
about 3 years ago

A Closer Look at The Cerebellum

A clear hand-drawn tutorial to help you learn about the cerebellum.  
almost 5 years ago

Circle of Willis - Isolated (Labeled)

Isolated Circle of Willis. Ventral.  
Health Education Assets Library
over 8 years ago

Embryology of the Urinary Tract

An understanding of the embryology of the genitals and urinary system is integral to the comprehension of normal and pathologic function of these organs.  While the genitals and urinary system have largely discrete functions, they share common embryologic origins.
about 3 years ago

Retroverted Uterus

The normal position of the uterus is anteverted. In this position, the uterus is concave on the side of the bladder, and bends round to sit just above and behind the bladder.   In a retroverted uterus, the uterus instead bends ‘backwards’ so that the concave side is posterior. About 20-30% of women have a retroverted uterus.   Clinical features - free medical student revision notes
almost 5 years ago