This PA Chest X-Ray demonstrates a left sided pleural effusion. In this condition fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura and appears as a shadowy fluid level on the X-Ray with obliteration of the costophrenic angles. If you were to examine this patient they might be in respiratory distress from reduced oxygen uptake (so have low sats, high resp rate, possible cyanosis and accessory muscle useage) - they may have reduced chest expansion on the affected side and it would be stony dull to percussion. Fluid transmits sound poorly so breath sounds would be decreased as would vocal resonance/fremitus. Someone with consolidation may have very similar clinical findings but the underlying area of lung is almost solid due to pus from the infective process - as sounds travel well through solids they would have increased vocal fremitus which is how you can clinically differentiate between the two conditions. Clinical examination and understanding of conditions is paramount to practice effective medicine. Before you recieved this X-Ray you should be able to diagnose the condition and use the X-Ray to confirm your suspicions.
This presentation describes the basic cardiovascular examination. It is suitable for students in their early clinical years but may also be appropriate for students in their final year as revision for their OSCEs or students returning to clinical medicine.
This poster offers a basic level of understanding of ABGs for medical students. I have also made an ID-card-sized version which can be easily used on the ward. Students can work around the table, looking at pH, then CO2 and then HCO3- and find the answer in the correct box.