During our antibiotics teaching at medical school we were told that a recent survey of junior doctors had revealed that a significant proportion didn't realise that augmentin, tazocin, and carbopenems were penicillins and as such should not be given to those with known allergies. I devised a "mind-map" summarising the main antibiotics in use using information from the BNF and my own lecture notes. For me, seeing the information laid out in this manner, pinned above my desk as I work, helps me remember the major classes, their relationships with one another, and their major side-effects.
Discussion about penicillins
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Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP, or paracetamol, PARA) is widely used for its analgesic and antipyretic properties in many over-the-counter formulations in both adults and children [Articles:21054454, 23719833]. APAP can be synthesized in the body through O-dealkylation of the prodrug phenacetin, a pain-killer that was withdrawn from the market due to nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis [Article:7002186]. At the therapeutic adult dose of 1-2 g/day, oral APAP is indicated for fever and mild to moderate acute pain conditions [Article:23719833]. Administration of acetaminophen via intravenous route has become increasingly widespread and has been used as a safe and effective antipyretic and analgesic agent [Article:25521845]. Maximum recommended therapeutic dose of APAP is 4 g/day in adults and 50-75 mg/kg/day in children. Consumption of a single dose greater than 7 g in an adult and 150 mg/kg in a child is considered potentially toxic to the liver and kidneys due to the highly active metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI)[Article:22998987].