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Foo20151013 2023 e2a8vo?1444774258
7
348

Monkey See, Monkey Do.

So you're sitting in a bus when you see a baby smile sunnily and gurgle at his mother. Your automatic response? You smile too. You're jogging in the park, when you see a guy trip over his shoelaces and fall while running. Your knee jerk reaction? You wince. Even though you're completely fine and unscathed yourself. Or, to give a more dramatic example; you're watching Titanic for the umpteenth time and as you witness Jack and Rose's final moments together, you automatically reach for a tissue and wipe your tears in whole hearted sympathy ( and maybe blow your nose loudly, if you're an unattractive crier like yours truly). And here the question arises- why? Why do we experience the above mentioned responses to situations that have nothing to do with us directly? As mere passive observers, what makes us respond at gut level to someone else's happiness or pain, delight or excitement, disgust or fear? In other words, where is this instinctive response to other people's feelings and actions that we call empathy coming from? Science believes it may have discovered the answer- mirror neurons. In the early 1990s, a group of scientists (I won't bore you with the details of who, when and where) were performing experiments on a bunch of macaque monkeys, using electrodes attached to their brains. Quite by accident, it was discovered that when the monkey saw a scientist holding up a peanut, it fired off the same motor neurons in its brain that would fire when the monkey held up a peanut itself. And that wasn't all. Interestingly, they also found that these motor neurons were very specific in their actions. A mirror neuron that fired when the monkey grasped a peanut would also fire only when the experimenter grasped a peanut, while a neuron that fired when the monkey put a peanut in its mouth would also fire only when the experimenter put a peanut in his own mouth. These motor neurons came to be dubbed as 'mirror neurons'. It was a small leap from monkeys to humans. And with the discovery of a similar, if not identical mirror neuron system in humans, the studies, hypotheses and theories continue to build. The strange thing is that mirror neurons seem specially designed to respond to actions with clear goals- whether these actions reach us through sight, sound, smell etc, it doesn't matter. A quick example- the same mirror neurons will fire when we hop on one leg, see someone hopping, hear someone hopping or hear or read the word 'hop'. But they will NOT respond to meaningless gestures, random or pointless sounds etc. Instead they may well be understanding the intentions behind the related action. This has led to a very important hypothesis- the 'action understanding' ability of mirror neurons. Before the discovery of mirror neurons, scientists believed our ability to understand each other, to interpret and respond to another's feeling or actions was the result of a logical thought process and deduction. However, if this 'action understanding' hypothesis is proved right, then it would mean that we respond to each other by feeling, instead of thinking. For instance, if someone smiles at you, it automatically fires up your mirror neurons for smiling. They 'understand the action' and induce the same sensation within you that is associated with smiling. You don't have to think about what the other person intends by this gesture. Your smile flows thoughtlessly and effortlessly in return. Which brings us to yet another important curve- if mirror neurons are helping us to decode facial expressions and actions, then it stands to reason that those gifted people who are better at such complex social interpretations must be having a more active mirror neuron system.(Imagine your mom's strained smile coupled with the glint in her eye after you've just thrown a temper tantrum in front of a roomful of people...it promises dire retribution my friends. Trust me.) Then does this mean that people suffering from disorders such as autism (where social interactions are difficult) have a dysfunctional or less than perfect mirror neuron system in some way? Some scientists believe it to be so. They call it the 'broken mirror hypothesis', where they claim that malfunctioning mirror neurons may be responsible for an autistic individual's inability to understand the intention behind other people's gestures or expressions. Such people may be able to correctly identify an emotion on someone's face, but they wouldn't understand it's significance. From observing other people, they don't know what it feels like to be sad, angry, surprised or scared. However, the jury is still out on this one folks. The broken mirror hypothesis has been questioned by others who are still skeptical about the very existence of these wonder neurons, or just how it is that these neurons alone suffered such a developmental hit when the rest of the autistic brain is working just dandy? Other scientists argue that while mirror neurons may help your brain to understand a concept, they may not necessarily ENCODE that concept. For instance, babies understand the meaning behind many actions without having the motor ability to perform them. If this is true, then an autistic person's mirror neurons are perfectly fine...they were just never responsible for his lack of empathy in the first place. Slightly confused? Curious to find out more about these wunderkinds of the human brain? Join the club. Whether you're an passionate believer in these little fellas with their seemingly magical properties or still skeptical, let me add to your growing interest with one parting shot- since imitation appears to be the primary function of mirror neurons, they might well be partly responsible for our cultural evolution! How, you ask? Well, since culture is passed down from one generation to another through sharing, observation followed by imitation, these neurons are at the forefront of our lifelong learning from those around us. Research has found that mirror neurons kick in at birth, with infants just a few minutes old sticking their tongues out at adults doing the same thing. So do these mirror neurons embody our humanity? Are they responsible for our ability to put ourselves in another person's shoes, to empathize and communicate our fellow human beings? That has yet to be determined. But after decades of research, one thing is for sure-these strange cells haven't yet ceased to amaze and we definitely haven't seen the last of them. To quote Alice in Wonderland, the tale keeps getting "curiouser and curiouser"!  
Huda Qadir
over 7 years ago
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6
92

Incontinence

 Mrs JC ,an obsese 73 year old lady comes to your GP clinic with her 3 daughters who complain their mother has been having ‘accidents’  
shahd ahmed
almost 9 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1n1xn42?1444773927
6
129

Successful liver transplantation using Facebook

In January 2012 I wrote about a girl who had created a Facebook page because she urgently needed a liver. In August 2004 I had a car accident in Germany, where damaged my limbs and some of my internal organs. That's why I need a liver URGENTLY! Over 26.000 people (family members, doctors, nurses, her friends and students from all parts of the country) followed and liked her page in 3 months. Finally she'd found a suitable liver, and she is fine now. I believe that our generation of health care professionals should be prepared for this and should provide meaningful help, because in the future we can not avoid patients who are interested in social media. E-patients will increasingly use web 2.0 tools as part of their health management and we must respond to that.  
Zoltán Cserháti
almost 9 years ago
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5
106

Engaging With Art To Improve Clinical Skills | Scope Blog

The scene: A group of medical students huddled around the iconic Robert Frank photograph Car Accident - U.S. 66, Between Winslow and Flagstaff, Arizona in the  
scopeblog.stanford.edu
over 6 years ago
Preview
3
57

Drinking and Driving: Why do we have a limit?

The current GCSE science curriculum expects students to undertake a module about ‘drink-driving’. This requires students to consider whether the drink-drive limit in the UK should be zero. The highest number of drink-drive related accidents is observed in younger age groups; current campaigns preach a ‘don’t drink and drive’ message, but do not provide a balanced argument to demonstrate reasons for this. I produced a booklet aimed at 14-18 year olds to support the GCSE science curriculum and to aid general understanding of why we have a drink-drive limit in the UK. The booklet is designed to stimulate original thought and understanding, in accordance with Piaget’s theory of assimilation and accommodation. I conducted a thorough learning needs assessment and delivered an initial teaching session to a group of GCSE students. Their feedback helped to guide my development of a final resource in the format of an interactive booklet. Although drink-drive campaigns feature regularly in the media, this age group is often overlooked, as many are not yet able to drive. My resource is not aimed to echo these campaigns, but to support understanding of why they might exist. It also ties in with GCSE science curriculum, and can be used as an aid to coursework by students. Helping students of this age to gain a basic understanding of ‘drink-driving’ and stimulating them to form their own views and opinions may influence their future behaviours and attitudes.  
Leonie Eastlake
over 10 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 zpmqsc?1444774026
3
3929

Assessing Types of Burns and their Severity

This is an excerpt from "Wound Care Made Incredibly Easy! 1st UK Edition" by Julie Vuolo For more information, or to purchase your copy, visit: http://tiny.cc/woundcare. Save 15% (and get free P&P) on this, and a whole host of other LWW titles at http://lww.co.uk when you use the code MEDUCATION when you check out! Introduction A burn is an acute wound caused by exposure to thermal extremes, electricity, caustic chemicals or radiation. The degree of tissue damage caused by a burn depends on the strength of the source and the duration of contact or exposure. Around 250,000 people per year sustain burn injuries in the UK (NBCRC 2001). Because of the specialist care burns require, they are considered here separately from other traumatic wounds. Types of burns Burns can be classified by cause or type. Knowing the type of burn will help you to plan the right care for your patient. Thermal burns The most common type of burn, thermal burns can result from virtually any misuse or mishandling of fire, combustible products, hot fluids and fat or coming into contact with a hot object. Playing with matches, pouring petrol onto a BBQ, spilling hot coffee, touching hot hair straighteners and setting off fireworks are some common examples of ways in which burns occur. Thermal burns can also result from kitchen accidents, house or office fires, car accidents or physical abuse. Although it’s less common, exposure to extreme cold can also cause thermal burns. Electrical burns Electrical burns result from contact with flowing electrical current. Household current, high-voltage transmission lines and lightning are sources of electrical burns. Internal injury is often considerably greater than is apparent externally. Chemical burns Chemical burns most commonly result from contact (skin contact or inhalation) with a caustic agent, such as an acid, an alkali or a vesicant. Radiation burns The most common radiation burn is sunburn, which follows excessive exposure to the sun. Almost all other burns due to radiation exposure occur as a result of radiation treatment or in specific industries that use or process radioactive materials. Assessment Conduct your initial assessment as soon as possible after the burn occurs. First, assess the patient’s ABCs. Then determine the patient’s level of consciousness and mobility. Next, assess the burn, including its size, depth and complexity. Determining size Determine burn size as part of your initial assessment. Typically, burn size is expressed as a percentage of total body surface area (TBSA). The Rule of Nines and the Lund–Browder Classification provide standardised and quick estimates of the percentage of TBSA affected. Memory Jogger To remember the proper sequence for the initial assessment of a burns patient, remember your ABCs and add D and E. Airway – Assess the patient’s airway, remove any obstruction and treat any obstructive condition. Breathing – Observe the motion of the patient’s chest. Auscultate the depth, rate and characteristics of the patient’s breathing. Circulation – Palpate the patient’s pulse at the carotid artery and then at the distal pulse points in the wrist, posterior tibial area and foot. Loss of distal pulse may indicate shock or constriction of an extremity. Disability – Assess the patient’s level of consciousness and ability to function before attempting to move or transfer them. Expose – Remove burned clothing from burned areas of the patient’s body and thoroughly examine the skin beneath.  
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
over 8 years ago
Www.bmj
1
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Drowning

Copyrighted Material, used by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons Limited. For personal use only, must not be reproduced or shared with third parties. Anyone wishing to reproduce this content in whole or in part, in print or in electronic format, should contact digitalrightsuk@wiley.com  
bmj.com
over 7 years ago
Www.bmj
1
25

Drowning

Copyrighted Material, used by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons Limited. For personal use only, must not be reproduced or shared with third parties. Anyone wishing to reproduce this content in whole or in part, in print or in electronic format, should contact digitalrightsuk@wiley.com  
bmj.com
over 7 years ago
Www.bmj
1
32

Drowning

Copyrighted Material, used by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons Limited. For personal use only, must not be reproduced or shared with third parties. Anyone wishing to reproduce this content in whole or in part, in print or in electronic format, should contact digitalrightsuk@wiley.com  
www.bmj.com
over 7 years ago
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1
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It was a freak accident

Stream It was a freak accident by BMJ talk medicine from desktop or your mobile device  
SoundCloud
over 7 years ago
Construction safety laws osha violation 212x300
1
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Construction Accident Attorney Los Angeles | Worker Injury Lawsuits

Injured workers and crew members of construction sites accidents are entitled to compensation. For information regarding your legal rights call (855)395-2529.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
Swimming pool drowning lawyer
1
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Swimming Pool Drowning Lawyer | Public and Private Accident Liability

Swimming pool accidents are often the result of negligence, where the owner or operator of the pool is liable for the damages under premises liability.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
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1
39

Los Angeles Car Accident Lawyer

Injured in a car crash? Hire a car accident lawyer attorney in Los Angeles at Downtown L.A. Law Group to get the most money for your car crash injuries.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
Los angeles motorcycle injury from accident attorney2 1024x161
1
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Los Angeles Motorcycle Accident Attorney

The Los Angeles motorcycle accident attorneys at Downtown L.A. Law Group will aggressively handle your personal injury claim. Call for a free consultation.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
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1
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California Truck Accident Lawsuit – Legal Information

If you need a truck accident attorney for a Jackknife, Semi-Truck, 18-Wheeler, Tractor Trailer, Big Rig or Rollover, call our Los Angeles Personal Injury Lawyer  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
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1
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Dangerous Defective Road Accident Lawyer | Los Angeles Highway Construction Injury Claim

Defective roads and highway are often a cause of major car accidents. Often times, the driver is not responsible for these types of accidents.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago
Hit and run accident attorney 300x192
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Hit and Run Accident Attorney | Uninsured Motorist Coverage

People do not know that uninsured motorist policy will compensate them for bodily injuries after a hit and run accident. Call our car accident attorney.  
downtownlalaw.com
over 7 years ago