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129

Alcoholic Hepatitis

This is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be steatosis of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules begin to accumulate in the cytoplasm of liver cells. this can be pretty harmless, and as a result, is not very specific for predicting if the liver will develop cirrhosis.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
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16

Neurology - Neuron

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twit...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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35

Leukemia treatment

There are three main solutions to treat leukemia. Chemotherapy is a collection of drugs which target cells that rapidly multiply (a key characteristic in can...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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177

Haematology - Red Blood Cell Life Cycle

This video look at Erythropoesis as well as how components of erythrocytes are recycled. https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.pa...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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1014

Prostate and Bladder Cancer Staging and Grading - A review for students

Amended from Wikipedia and other sources T.I Lemon Stage means spread Grade means histology Prostate cancer staging – spread of the cancer There are two schemes commonly used to stage prostate cancer. TMN and Whitmore Jewett Stage I disease is cancer that is found incidentally in a small part of the sample when prostate tissue was removed for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hypertrophy, and the cells closely resemble normal cells and the gland feels normal to the examining finger Stage II more of the prostate is involved and a lump can be felt within the gland. Stage III, the tumour has spread through the prostatic capsule and the lump can be felt on the surface of the gland. In Stage IV disease, the tumour has invaded nearby structures, or has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. Grading - Gleason Grading System is based on cellular content and tissue architecture from biopsies, which provides an estimate of the destructive potential and ultimate prognosis of the disease. TX: cannot evaluate the primary tumor T0: no evidence of tumor T1: tumor present, but not detectable clinically or with imaging • T1a: tumor was incidentally found in less than 5% of prostate tissue resected (for other reasons) • T1b: tumor was incidentally found in greater than 5% of prostate tissue resected • T1c: tumor was found in a needle biopsy performed due to an elevated serum PSA T2: the tumor can be felt (palpated) on examination, but has not spread outside the prostate • T2a: the tumor is in half or less than half of one of the prostate gland's two lobes • T2b: the tumor is in more than half of one lobe, but not both • T2c: the tumor is in both lobes but within the prostatic capsule • T3: the tumor has spread through the prostatic capsule (if it is only part-way through, it is still T2) • T3a: the tumor has spread through the capsule on one or both sides • T3b: the tumor has invaded one or both seminal vesicles • T4: the tumor has invaded other nearby structures It should be stressed that the designation "T2c" implies a tumor which is palpable in both lobes of the prostate. Tumors which are found to be bilateral on biopsy only but which are not palpable bilaterally should not be staged as T2c. Evaluation of the regional lymph nodes ('N') NX: cannot evaluate the regional lymph nodes • N0: there has been no spread to the regional lymph nodes • N1: there has been spread to the regional lymph nodes Evaluation of distant metastasis ('M') • MX: cannot evaluate distant metastasis • M0: there is no distant metastasis • M1: there is distant metastasis • M1a: the cancer has spread to lymph nodes beyond the regional ones • M1b: the cancer has spread to bone • M1c: the cancer has spread to other sites (regardless of bone involvement) Evaluation of the histologic grade ('G') Usually, the grade of the cancer (how different the tissue is from normal tissue) is evaluated separately from the stage; however, for prostate cancer, grade information is used in conjunction with TNM status to group cases into four overall stages. • GX: cannot assess grade • G1: the tumor closely resembles normal tissue (Gleason 2–4) • G2: the tumor somewhat resembles normal tissue (Gleason 5–6) • G3–4: the tumor resembles normal tissue barely or not at all (Gleason 7–10) Of note, this system of describing tumors as "well-", "moderately-", and "poorly-" differentiated based on Gleason score of 2-4, 5-6, and 7-10, respectively, persists in SEER and other databases but is generally outdated. In recent years pathologists rarely assign a tumor a grade less than 3, particularly in biopsy tissue. A more contemporary consideration of Gleason grade is: • Gleason 3+3: tumor is low grade (favorable prognosis) • Gleason 3+4 / 3+5: tumor is mostly low grade with some high grade • Gleason 4+3 / 5+3: tumor is mostly high grade with some low grade • Gleason 4+4 / 4+5 / 5+4 / 5+5: tumor is all high grade Note that under current guidelines, if any Pattern 5 is present it is included in final score, regardless of the percentage of the tissue having this pattern, as the presence of any pattern 5 is considered to be a poor prognostic marker. Overall staging The tumor, lymph node, metastasis, and grade status can be combined into four stages of worsening severity. Stage Tumor Nodes Metastasis Grade Stage I T1a N0 M0 G1 Stage II T1a N0 M0 G2–4 T1b N0 M0 Any G T1c N0 M0 Any G T1 N0 M0 Any G T2 N0 M0 Any G Stage III T3 N0 M0 Any G Stage IV T4 N0 M0 Any G Any T N1 M0 Any G Any T Any N M1 Any G Bladder T (Primary tumour) • TX Primary tumour cannot be assessed • T0 No evidence of primary tumour • Ta Non-invasive papillary carcinoma • Tis Carcinoma in situ (‘flat tumour’) • T1 Tumour invades subepithelial connective tissue • T2a Tumour invades superficial muscle (inner half) • T2b Tumour invades deep muscle (outer half) • T3 Tumour invades perivesical tissue: • T3a Microscopically • T3b Macroscopically (extravesical mass) • T4a Tumour invades prostate, uterus or vagina • T4b Tumour invades pelvic wall or abdominal wall N (Lymph nodes) • NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed • N0 No regional lymph node metastasis • N1 Metastasis in a single lymph node 2 cm or less in greatest dimension • N2 Metastasis in a single lymph node more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension,or multiple lymph nodes, none more than 5 cm in greatest dimension • N3 Metastasis in a lymph node more than 5 cm in greatest dimension M (Distant metastasis) • MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed • M0 No distant metastasis • M1 Distant metastasis. Grade Urothelial papilloma – non cancerous (benign) tumour •Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) – very slow growing and unlikely to spread •Low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma – slow growing and unlikely to spread •High grade papillary urothelial carcinoma – more quickly growing and more likely to spread  
Thomas Lemon
over 8 years ago
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542

Classification of Giant Cell lesions

Useful for PG students, especially those doing oral pathology  
Subramanyam
over 6 years ago
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Immunology - Adaptive Immunity (B cell Activation, Hypermutation and Class Switching Overview)

http://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Image: https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B8Ss3-wJfHrpU2NDZnIwZHFBWUE  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 8 years ago
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Neurology - Physiology Overview

Introduces the nervous system briefly, and mainly talk about the defenses of the nervous system as well as the glia cells which play roles in it.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 8 years ago
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Lung Cancer

When we talk about lung cancer, we are generally referring to tumour of the bronchus. 95% of lung cancers are carcinoma of the bronchus 2% are alveolar tumours 3% are benign or less invasive malignant tumours. Death normally occurs after 30 ‘cell doublings’ of malignant cells. In this document I will be referring to bronchial carcinoma unless otherwise stated    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
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Psoriasis

Pathology Keratinocyte hyperproliferation: differentiation, or ‘skin cell going from basal layer to horny layer’, reduced from 4 weeks to 4 days [approximately!] Histopathological features: Parakeratosis: retained nuclei Acanthosis: thick epidermis Absent granular layer Lengthened rete ridges Thin dermal papillae  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
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The Molecular Basis of Memory: Tracking mRNA in Brain Cells in Real Time

http://www.einstein.yu.edu - Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a mouse model in which molecules crucial to making memories (beta-a...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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Leukemia pathophysiology

Sometimes an immature blast cell have two gene mutations which prevent it from maturing into a specialized blood cell and cause it to multiply out of control...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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Cellular Structure of Bone

Learn about the different cells that make up bone and the bone matrix. Visit us (http://www.khanacademy.org/science/healthcare-and-medicine) for health and m...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
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Egg, sperm, and fertilization

Visit us (http://www.khanacademy.org/science/healthcare-and-medicine) for health and medicine content or (http://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat) for MCAT...  
YouTube
about 7 years ago
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Cell Division, Cancer | Learn Science at Scitable

Cancer is somewhat like an evolutionary process. Over time, cancer cells accumulate multiple mutations in genes that control cell division. Learn how dangerous this accumulation can be.  
nature.com
about 7 years ago
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Haematology - Red Blood Cell Life Cycle

This video look at Erythropoesis as well as how components of erythrocytes are recycled. https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.pa...  
YouTube
almost 7 years ago
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Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer

As with other books in the Molecular Pathology Library Series, Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer bridges the gap between the molecular specialist and the clinical practitioner, including the surgical pathologist who now has a key role in decisions regarding molecular targeted therapy for lung cancer. Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer provides the latest information and current insights into the molecular basis for lung cancer, including precursor and preinvasive lesions, molecular diagnosis, molecular targeted therapy, molecular prognosis, molecular radiology and related fields for lung cancer generally and for the specific cell types. As many fundamental concepts about lung cancer have undergone revision in only the past few years, this book will likely be the first to comprehensively cover the new molecular pathology of lung cancer. It provides a foundation in this field for pathologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, thoracic surgeons, thoracic radiologists and their trainees, physician assistants, and nursing staff.  
Google Books
almost 7 years ago