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ARDS - Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome and ALI – acute lung injury, are essentially the same disease; ARDS is the more serious end of the spectrum, and for the purpose of this article, we will also refer to the disease as ARDS      
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almost 8 years ago
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Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulamtous disorder of unknown aetiology. It most commonly affects the lungs (>90% of cases) and lymphatic system, but can affect any organ. Many cases are asymptomatic, although some patients can have very severe disease. Treatment may involve NSAIDs and less often, steroids, but often none is required as most cases resolve spontaneously.   Epidemiology and Aetiology  
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almost 8 years ago
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Comparison and Summary of Types of Arthritis

Disease Location  
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almost 8 years ago
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Osteomalacia and Rickets

These are essentially the same disorder. In children, the disease is rickets but after fusion of the epiphyseal plates it is known as osteomalacia. The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency. The condition is characterised by normal bone formation with abnormal bone mineralisation, thus there is excess osteoid and cartilage, and insufficient bone.   Causes  
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almost 8 years ago
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Paget's Disease of the Bone

Along with osteoporosis, this is a common degenerative bone disease   Epidemiology and Aetiology This is the second most common bone disorder (after osteoporosis), and affects >5% of the over 55’s in the UK. The prevalence varies between countries and races. The UK has the highest incidence. It is rare in Scandinavia, China and Japan. Increased incidence in Pet Owners Genetic susceptibility  
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almost 8 years ago
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Systemic Sclerosis

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Other similar diseases include SLE, RA, Sjogren’s syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease. There is a lot of overlap in the symptoms of these diseases. Many will require immunosuppressive therapy.  
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almost 8 years ago
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Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH)

 
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Goitre

Summary Goitre - enlarged palpable thyroid gland, moves on swallowing Best way to assess is via USS Not necessarily indicative of disease Simple Goitre - normal level of hormones, no treatment necessary    
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almost 8 years ago
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Haemophilia A

X-linked recessive condition, deficiency of factor VIII, prevalence 1 in 10,000 Range of possible mutations, 30% of cases due to sporadic mutation Low factor VIII levels predispose to bleeding – risk proportional to factor VIII level Mild disease (11-30 units/dl) risk after significant trauma/surgery Moderate disease (2-10 units) - minor trauma  
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almost 8 years ago
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Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease)

X-linked recessive condition, deficiency of factor IX Severely affected patients develop haemarthroses Inhibitors (factor IX antibodies) less common Recombinant factor IX – 18 hour half life so daily dosing to maintain levels Prophylactic treatment can be given once or twice weekly Named for the patient in the leading paper on the disease (Mr. Christmas), published in the BMJ Christmas edition 1952  
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almost 8 years ago
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von Willebrand's Disease

Most common inherited bleeding disorder (asymptomatic deficiencies 1%, symptomatic disease 100 per million) von Willeband factor (vWF) important in platelet adhesion and factor VIII transport Types of vWDType 1: decreased concentration of vWF, 80%, often autosomal dominantType 2: qualitative deficiency – AD or AR inheritance  
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almost 8 years ago
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Large Bowel Obstruction

Large bowel obstruction Typically causes a less severe disease than small bowel obstruction Symptoms are more gradual in onset There are often loud borborygmi (normal bowel sounds) Rectum is usually empty, and the abdomen is non-tender Pain is lower down in the abdomen There may be greater distension than with small bowel obstruction    
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almost 8 years ago