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Voluntary vs Automatic responses in the Somatic Nervous System.

This question is about the somatic nervous system (SNS). I read that this the SNS part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and that it controls skeletal muscle. It is therefore thought to be voluntary. In contrast, the autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle, under involuntary control. What I'm wondering is if reflex arcs (or reflexes) are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, why is it making use of skeletal muscle? Take the example of the reaction of moving your hand away when it is placed on something hot. These motor commands come from the autonomic nervous system but control the arm muscles that are normally controlled consciously. In other words things normally controlled voluntarily. The response was activated by the ANS, and was therefore automatic, but the muscles supplied by these motor commands were skeletal muscles? Can someone explain this (contradition) or perhaps correct my wrong thinking?  
Alex Catley
over 9 years ago
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2
33

No Title

The liver is found just beneath the diaphragm on the right hand side and is under the ribs so is not normally palpable. Horizontally the liver runs from the ed…  
Lucy Faulkner
over 9 years ago
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2
39

No Title

The liver is found just beneath the diaphragm on the right hand side and is under the ribs so is not normally palpable. Horizontally the liver runs from the ed…  
Lucy Faulkner
over 9 years ago
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2
41

No Title

SPIROMETRY • Wash hands • Introduce, identify patient, gain consent • Establish height, sex, age and ethnicity (if African/Asian query whether ‘normal’ values …  
Nick Francis
over 10 years ago
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17
483

Anatomy wikiversity quizzes

This is a link to quizzes made using Wikiversity. During a Student selected component my colleague and I experimented with wikiversity. Although the quizzes made were basic, the concept is that they can be edited and added to by anyone using them to improve them and make them more interactive. The best example are probably the shoulder muscles and lateral aspect of the hand quizzes.  
Daniel Wornham
almost 11 years ago
29748
2
107

Cranial Nerves Examination - Normal

Orientation, Memor Asking questions about month, date, day of week and place tests orientation, which involves not only memory but also attention and language. Three-word recall tests recent memory for which the temporal lobe is important. Remote memory tasks such as naming Presidents, tests not only the temporal lobes but also heteromodal association cortices. Attention-working memory Digit span, spelling backwards and naming months of the year backward test attention and working memory which are frontal lobe functions Judgement-abstract reasoning These frontal lobe functions can be tested by using problem solving, verbal similarities and proverbs Set generation This is a test of verbal fluency and the ability to generate a set of items which are frontal lobe functions. Most individuals can give 10 or more words in a minute. Receptive language Asking the patient to follow commands demonstrates that they understand the meaning of what they have heard or read. It is important to test reception of both spoken and written language. Expressive language In assessing expressive language it is important to note fluency and correctness of content and grammar. This can be accomplished by tasks that require spontaneous speech and writing, naming objects, repetition of sentences, and reading comprehension. Praxis The patient is asked to perform skilled motor tasks without any nonverbal prompting. Skills tested for should involve the face then the limbs. In order to test for praxis the patient must have normal comprehension and intact voluntary movement. Apraxia is typically seen in lesions of the dominant inferior parietal lobe. Gnosis Gnosis is the ability to recognize objects perceived by the senses especially somatosensory sensation. Having the patient (with their eyes closed) identify objects placed in their hand (stereognosis) and numbers written on their hand (graphesthesia) tests parietal lobe sensory perception. Dominant parietal lobe function Tests for dominant inferior parietal lobe function includes right-left orientation, naming fingers, and calculations. Non-dominant parietal lobe function The non-dominant parietal lobe is important for visual spatial sensory tasks such as attending to the contralateral side of the body and space as well as constructional tasks such as drawing a face, clock or geometric figures. Visual recognition Recognition of colors and faces tests visual association cortex (inferior occiptotemporal area). Achromatopsia (inability to distinguish colors), visual agnosia (inability to name or point to a color) and prosopagnosia (inability to identify a familiar faces) result from lesions in this area.  
Neurologic Exam
almost 11 years ago
29746
1
54

Mental Status Abnormal

Orientation, Memor This patient has difficulty with orientation questions. The day of the week is correct but he misses the month and date. He is oriented to place. Orientation mistakes are not localizing but can be due to problems with memory, language, judgement, attention or concentration. The patient has good recent memory (declarative memory) as evidenced by the recall of three objects but has difficulty with long term memory as evidenced by the difficulty recalling the current and past presidents. Attention-working memor The patient has difficulty with digit span backwards, spelling backwards and giving the names of the months in reverse order. This indicates a problem with working memory and maintaining attention, both of which are frontal lobe functions. Judgement-abstract reasoning The patient gives the correct answer for a house on fire and his answers for similarities are also good. He has problems with proverb interpretation. His answers are concrete and consist of rephrasing the proverb or giving a simple consequence of the action in the proverb. Problems with judgement, abstract reasoning, and executive function can be seen in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Set generatio Set generation tests word fluency and frontal lobe function. The patient starts well but abruptly stops after only four words. Most individuals can give more then 10 words in one minute. Receptive languag Patients with a receptive aphasia (Wernicke’s) cannot comprehend language. Their speech output is fluent but is devoid of meaning and contains nonsense syllables or words (neologisms). Their sentences are usually lacking nouns and there are paraphasias (one word substituted for another). The patient is usually unaware of their language deficit and prognosis for recovery is poor. This patient’s speech is fluent and some of her sentences even make sense but she also has nonsense sentences, made up of words and parts of words. She can’t name objects (anomia). She doesn’t have a pure or complete receptive aphasia but pure receptive aphasias are rare. Expressive languag This patient with expressive aphasia has normal comprehension but her expression of language is impaired. Her speech output is nonfluent and often limited to just a few words or phases. Grammatical words such as prepositions are left out and her speech is telegraphic. She has trouble saying “no ifs , ands or buts”. Her ability to write is also effected Patients with expressive aphasia are aware of their language deficit and are often frustrated by it. Recovery can occur but is often incomplete with their speech consisting of short phrases or sentences containing mainly nouns and verbs. Praxi The patient does well on most of the tests of praxis. At the very end when he is asked to show how to cut with scissors he uses his fingers as the blades of the scissors instead of acting like he is holding onto the handles of the scissors and cutting. This can be an early finding of inferior parietal lobe dysfunction. Gnosi With his right hand the patient has more difficulty identifying objects then with his left hand. One must be careful in interpreting the results of this test because of the patient’s motor deficits but there does seem to be astereognosis on the right, which would indicate left parietal lobe dysfunction. This is confirmed with graphesthesia where he definitely has more problems identifying numbers written on the right hand then the left (agraphesthesia of the right hand). Dominant parietal lobe functio This patient has right-left confusion and difficulty with simple arithmetic. These are elements of the Gertsmann syndrome, which is seen in lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. The full syndrome consists of right-left confusion, finger agnosia, agraphia and acalculia.  
Neurologic Exam
almost 11 years ago
13
1
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Zombies and pain - listen to the lecture

<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2088/1569598816_5cd12917f7_d.jpg"><img style="float:left; margin:0 10px 10px 0;cursor:pointer; cursor:hand;width: 200px;" src="http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2088/1569598816_5cd12917f7_d.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></a><br /><br />Zombie philosophy - more than a professor with a hangover? How does colourblind Mary know that her lamb is white? And what has this nonsense to do with pain? Dr Tillmann Vierkant of the University of Edinburgh explains to the combined meeting of the East and West of Scotland Pain Groups.<br /><br /><span style="font-style: italic;">Listen again</span>:<br />Download <a href="http://www.archive.org/download/ZombiesAndPain/ZombiesAndPain_64kb.mp3">mp3 of lecture</a> 37.8Mb Duration: 1:18:51<br />Listen to <a href="http://www.archive.org/download/ZombiesAndPain/ZombiesAndPain_64kb.m3u"> lo-fi stream</a><br /><br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Further reading:</span><br /><a href="http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-19-vierkant.html">Zombie Mary and the Blue Banana</a><br /><a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/52554152?tab=details">Consciousness: an introduction - Susan J Blackmore</a><br /><a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33101543?tab=details">The conscious mind : in search of a fundamental theory - David Chalmers</a><br /><br />Photo: CC <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/maliciawalls/">maliciawalls</a><div class="blogger-post-footer"><img width='1' height='1' src='https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/tracker/13562045-2802939476208699578?l=wspain.blogspot.com' alt='' /></div>  
West of Scotland Pain Group lectures
over 11 years ago
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A Tularemia lesion on the dorsal skin of the right hand, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.

Tularemia is caused by the bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Symptoms vary depending on how the person was exposed to the disease, and as is shown here, can include skin ulcers.  
Public Health Information Library
over 11 years ago
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3
88

Lobster hand reconstruction

Lobster hand reconstruction  
Chris Oliver
almost 12 years ago
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2
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i-LIMB Bionic Hand

The i-LIMB Hand™ is the world’s first full articulating bionic hand, delivering compliant grip, wraparound fingers, thumb rotation and full hand palmar grip. It brings a new dimension to upper limb prosthetics, with levels of flexibility, durability, aesthetic presentation an overall functionality that have never been seen before. For the first time, a prosthetic hand delivers grip configurations that behave in almost every respect like its natural counterpart, transforming both the capabilitie and the confidence of users.  
Chris Oliver
almost 12 years ago