Although cancer has an annual incidence of only about 150 new cases per 1 million U.S. children, it is the second leading cause of childhood deaths. Early detection and prompt therapy have the potential to reduce mortality. Leukemias, lymphomas and central nervous system tumors account for more than one half of new cancer cases in children. Early in the disease, leukemia may cause nonspecific symptoms similar to those of a viral infection. Leukemia should be suspected if persistent vague symptoms are accompanied by evidence of abnormal bleeding, bone pain, lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The presenting symptoms of a brain tumor may include elevated intracranial pressure, nerve abnormalities and seizures. A spinal tumor often presents with signs and symptoms of spinal cord compression. In children, lymphoma may present as one or more painless masses, often in the neck, accompanied by signs and symptoms resulting from local compression, as well as signs and symptoms of systemic disturbances, such as fever and weight loss. A neuroblastoma may arise from sympathetic nervous tissue anywhere in the body, but this tumor most often develops in the abdomen. The presentation depends on the local effects of the solid tumor and any metastases. An abdominal mass in a child may also be due to Wilms' tumor. This neoplasm may present with renal signs and symptoms, such as hypertension, hematuria and abdominal pain. A tumor of the musculoskeletal system is often first detected when trauma appears to cause pain and dysfunction out of proportion to the injury. Primary care physicians should be alert for possible presenting signs and symptoms of childhood malignancy, particularly in patients with Down syndrome or other congenital and familial conditions associated with an increased risk of cancer.
over 6 years ago
Roger Seheult, MD illustrates the key differences between the nephrotic and nephritic syndromes. Topics include proteinuria, hematuria, casts, anatomy of the...
over 6 years ago
How do the two relate to each other? Is the anemia hemolytic, or hypovolemic? Is it the presence of hematuria that causes anemia, could it be severe enough to do so?
over 8 years ago
This podcast addresses the topic of hematuria in children. The podcast helps students develop an approach to the evaluation of hematuria. There is a brief overview of common causes of hematuria in children. This podcast was written by Peter Gill and Dr. Verna Yiu. Peter is a medical student at the University of Alberta. Dr. Yiu is a pediatric nephrologist at the Stollery Children’s Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. These podcasts are designed to give medical students an overview of key topics in pediatrics. The audio versions are accessible on iTunes. You can find more great pediatrics content at www.pedscases.com.
about 11 years ago
<p>Why is a 12 hour erection a bad thing? How should we manage the patient with bloody urine? A curbside consult with urologist Brian Shaffer, MD. </p <p>Your emails</p <p>An unusual southern accent</p <p>and much more...</p <p> </p <p><em><strong><span style="font-size: x-large; color: #0000ff;">Urology Primer</span></strong></em></p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Priapism<span style="font-size: 10px; font-weight: normal;"> a rare condition that causes a persistent, and often painful, penile erection.</span></span></strong></p <p> </p <p>Priapism is drug induced, injury related, or caused by disease, not sexual desire. As in a normal erection, the penis fills with blood and becomes erect. However, unlike a normal erection that dissipates after sexual activity ends, the persistent erection caused by priapism is maintained because the blood in the penile shaft does not drain. The shaft remains hard, while the tip of the penis is soft. If it is not relieved promptly, priapism can lead to permanent scarring of the penis and inability to have a normal erection.</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Clot retention</span></strong></p <p>blood clots in the bladder prevent urine emptying</p <p> </p <p><span style="font-size: large;"><strong>Coude Catheter</strong></span></p <p>a semi-rigid catheter that has a curve or bend at the tip. The curved tip allows it to navigate over the curvature of the prostate or any other urethral obstruction it may encounter. A Coude catheter is specifically designed for this purpose. Coude catheters are available in size 8 French to size 26 French.</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">De Novo</span></strong></p <p>The Latin expression de novo literally means something akin to "from the beginning" or "anew"</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Interstitial cystitis</span></strong></p <p>also called painful bladder syndrome — is a chronic condition characterized by a combination of uncomfortable bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pain in your pelvis, which can range from mild burning or discomfort to severe pain.</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Cystoscopy</span></strong></p <p>the use of a scope (cystoscope) to examine the bladder. This is done either to look at the bladder for abnormalities or to help with surgery being performed on the inside of the urinary tract (transurethral surgery).</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">CT Urogram</span></strong></p <p>A urogram is a radiograph, or X-ray image, of the urinary tract. </p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">TURP</span></strong></p <p>transurethral resection of the prostate</p <p> </p <p><strong><span style="font-size: large;">Foley catheter</span></strong></p <p>a thin, sterile tube inserted into the bladder to drain urine. Because it can be left in place in the bladder for a period of time, it is also called an indwelling catheter. It is held in place with a balloon at the end, which is filled with sterile water to hold it in place. The urine drains into a bag and can then be taken from an outlet device to be drained</p <p> </p <p> </p>
Rob Orman, MD
about 11 years ago