New to Meducation?
Sign up
Already signed up? Log In

Category

Preview
3
54

Fifth Disease

Fifth Disease - so called as it was the fifth of the six common childhood skin rashes when it was first classified back in the 18th and 19th centuries. Formally known as Erythema Infectiosum and also colloquially called slapped cheek syndrome. Aietiology and Epidemiology  Caused by infection with Parvovirus B19 (aka erythrovirus)    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
Preview
3
85

Meningitis

Definitions Meningitis – although this technically only means inflammation of the meninges, it is usually taken to mean infection. Meningitis is far more common in infants and children than in adults.   Causes There are a wide range of causes of meningism; typically: viral, bacterial and endogenous (e.g. malignancy, autoimmune disease, subarachnoid haemorrhage). Prions and protozoa can also cause the disease.  
almostadoctor.co.uk
almost 8 years ago
Preview
3
92

Microbiology Review- BACTERIAL CELL WALL

This lecture covers bacterial cell wall structure and functions. How bacteria causes infections and develop anitbiotic resistance.  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 184etvn?1444773944
3
135

Aspergillus and Human Health

Many may be familiar with aspergillosis as the infecting agent in acute cases where the patient is severely immunocompromised - but there is more to this fungus' repertoire. There are rare cases where the patient's immune system is overwhelmed by a large inhalation of spores e.g. after gardening, but these are insignificant in terms of total numbers effected. The following are far more common:- Aspergillus and other fungi are increasingly identified as the active agent in sinusitis - if you have cases that don't respond to antibiotics this is worth thinking about. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA & aspergilloma) is an infection of immunocompetent people, causing respiratory difficulty, coughing and haemoptysis. The UK NHS has a specialist centre for these patients In Manchester (National Aspergillosis Centre (NAC)). NAC has particular expertise and extensive facilities for the diagnosis of CPA, ABPA, SAFS and use of systemic antifungal drugs. Allergic infection (Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - ABPA and chronic sinusitis) is thought to be heavily underdiagnosed and undertreated. ABPA is particularly common in Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis patients and those with bronchiectasis. There is estimated to be 25 000 cases in the UK alone. Many (50%) of the most severe asthma cases are sensitive to fungi (SAFS) - in particular Aspergillus. These tend to be the most unstable cases that don't respond to antibiotics and several studies have been published that show giving an antifungal helps reduce the use of steroids for these patients. Last but not least - Tuberculosis is on the rise in the UK and the rest of the world. It is estimated that 2% of cases progress to CPA and should be treated using an antifungal - this is usually not done until considerable time has passed and much damage has been done. In total it is estimated that many millions of people across the world suffer from aspergillus - ABPA - 5 million, Tb - 400 000 per year and Asthma (SAFS - 1 - 4 million cases in EU & US). Sinusitis cases may number many tens of millions worldwide. So - the next time you assume aspergillus infections and aspergillosis are rare and confined to those who are profoundly immunocompromised - think again! If you have a patient who has increasingly severe respiratory symptoms, doesn't respond to multiple courses of antibiotics then give aspergillus a thought. Browse around these articles for further information Aspergillus Website Treatment Section. NB For a broader look at the prevalence of fungal diseases worldwide the new charity Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) website is worth looking at.  
Graham Atherton
almost 9 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 eztttu?1444774181
3
138

Dealing with Personal Illness in Med School

Hey guys! I’m Nicole and I’m a second year medical student at Glasgow University. I’ve decided to start this blog to write about my experiences as a med student and the difficulties I encounter along the way, hopefully giving you something you can relate to. Since June of last year I have been suffering with a personal illness, with symptoms of persistent nausea, gastric pain and lethargy. At first I thought it was just a bug that would pass on fairly quickly, but as the summer months went on it was clear that this illness wasn’t going to disappear overnight. I spent my summer going through a copious amount of medications in hope that I’d feel better for term starting. I visited my GP several times and had bloods taken regularly. After 2 months, I finally got given a diagnosis; I had a helicobacter pylori infection. I started eradication therapy for a week and although it made my symptoms worse, I was positive would make me better and I’d be well again within the week. The week passed with no improvements in my condition. Frustrated, I went back to my GP who referred me for an endoscopy. Term started back the next week and despite feeling miserable I managed to drag myself out to every lecture, tutorial and lab. Within a few weeks I began to fall behind in my work, doing the bare minimum required to get through. Getting up each morning was a struggle and forcing myself to sit in lectures despite the severe nausea I was experiencing was becoming a bigger challenge each day. In October I went for my endoscopy which, for those of you that don't know, is a horribly uncomfortable procedure. My family and friends assured me that this would be the final stage and I’d be better very very soon. The results came back and my GP gave me a different PPI in hope that it would fix everything. I waited a few weeks and struggled through uni constantly hoping that everything would magically get better. I gave up almost all my extra-circular activities which for me, the extrovert I am, was possibly the hardest part of it all. I wanted to stay in bed all the time and I become more miserable every day. I was stressing about falling behind in uni and tensions began to build up in my personal life. It got to the point where I couldn’t eat a meal without it coming back up causing me to lose a substantial amount of weight. I got so stressed that I had to leave an exam to throw up. I was truly miserable. I seen a consultant just before Christmas who scheduled me in for some scans, but it wasn’t until January. I was frustrated at how long this was going on for and I thought it was about time I told the medical school about my situation. They were very understanding and I was slightly surprised at just how supportive they were. I contacted my head of year who arranged a visit with me for January. During the Christmas break I had a chance to relax and forget about everything that was stressing me. I got put on a stronger anti-sickness medication which, surprisingly, seemed to work. The tensions in my life that had built up in the last few months seemed to resolve themselves and I began to feel a lot more positive! I met with my head of year just last week who was encouraged by my newly found positive behaviour. We’ve agreed to see how things progress over the next few months, but things are looking a lot brighter than before. I’ve taken on a new attitude and I’m determined to work my hardest to get through this year. I’m currently undertaking an SSC so I have lots of free time to catch up on work I missed during the last term. My head of year has assured me that situations like the one I’m in happen all the time and I’m definitely not alone. I feel better knowing that the medical school are behind me and are willing to help and support me through this time. The most important thing I have taken from this experience is the fact that you’ll never know the full extent of what a patient is going through. Illness effects different people in different ways and it may not just be a persons health thats affected, it can affect all aspects of their life. This experience has definitely opened my eyes up and hopefully I’ll be able to understand patients’ situations a little better.  
Nicole Mooney
almost 8 years ago
Preview
3
267

Introduction to immunology | McMaster Pathophysiology Review

Microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease symptoms by a variety of mechanisms. Microbial invasion is initially countered by innate defenses that preexist in all individuals and begin to act within minutes following encounter with the infectious agent. Only when the innate defenses are bypassed, evaded or overwhelmed is an adaptive immune response required. The innate immune system (IIS) is usually sufficient to prevent the body from being routinely overpowered by these organisms. However, once they have gained a hold, they require the concerted efforts of both the IIS and the adaptive immune system (AIS). In the first part of this chapter, different arms and principles of the IIS and the AIS will be briefly discussed.  The second part of the chapter will discuss the process of fighting a bacterial and a viral infection, with an emphasis on the cross talk between the two parts of the immune system.  
pathophys.org
over 6 years ago
Preview
3
94

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding - ACOG

Abnormal uterine bleeding can have many causes: fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, contraceptives such as IUDs, or infection. Find out more in this patient FAQ.<br/>  
acog.org
about 6 years ago
Preview
2
77

The logical choice of antibiotic for the urgent treatment of septic arthritis before sensitivities are available.

Presentation that accompanies the poster on the treatment of septic arthritis.  
Dr Ben Savage
over 12 years ago
6
2
51

Focus On: Community-Acquired MRSA

Rational management of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be challenging because the approaches used to evaluate and treat such infections remain quite variable nationwide.  
American College Of Emergency Medicine
over 11 years ago
6
2
49

Surviving Sepsis Campaign (part 1)

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) is concensus document that attempts to provide the best evidence to assist in the care of the septic patient.&nbsp; All providers who provide care to the septic patient should be aware of the contents of the SSC.&nbsp;  
Jeffrey S. Guy, MD, FACS
over 11 years ago
Preview
2
69

TB - an introduction to Infectious Diseases

This PowerPoint presentation compiles the content for an Exhibition entitled TB - an introduction to Infectious Diseases - currently displayed at St George's University of London Pathology Museum (pamphlet, images of specimens, poster). This interactive exhibition aimed to teach A-level, 'Access-to-Medicine' and Medical students about TB and infectious diseases. The exhibition was presented to a group of 'Access-to-Medicine' students whom enjoyed it immensely.  
Sophie Roberts
almost 11 years ago
30081o
2
121

Liver pathology 2

Audio podcast outlining the pathological processes that occur in the liver including; infection, alcohol abuse, drugs toxicity, metabolic abnormalities, autoimmune processes and neoplasia.  
Podmedics
over 10 years ago
Preview
2
123

Pneumonia (Adults)

This article describes adult respiratory tract infection. For more information, please see paediatric respiratory infections   Pneumonia is a common lower respiratory tract infection, characterised by inflammation of the lung tissue. It is almost always an acute infection, and almost always caused by bacteria. Diagnosis is typically confirmed via chest x-ray.  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
Preview
2
39

Human Papilloma Virus - HPV

Epidemiology The most common STI in the UK Estimated that 10-20% of the population have a genital HPV infection, but only 1% of the population are symptomatic at any one time   Pathology The result of HPV infection. There are >100 types of HPV, and only several cause warts. HPV types 6 and 11 account for >90% of cases   Spread  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
Preview
2
61

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

This is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). It typically comes on several weeks after viral infection, usually, GI or URTI (also sometimes flu vaccine [controversial]). HIV is also known to be a cause. In up to 40% of cases, no precipitating factor can be found.   Epidemiology 1-2 per 100 000 In 40% of cases, no cause is found  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
Preview
2
45

Pneumonia (Children)

Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, characterised by inflammation of the lung parenchyma and production of fluid in the alveoli.   It is technically a type of bronchitis (infection of the bronchi). The highest incidence of pneumonia is during infancy. This gradually decline with age, before rising again in older age groups. In ½ of cases, no causatory organism is identified  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago
Preview
2
35

Laryngeal and Tracheal Infection

Laryngeal and tracheal infection Although sometimes referred to as synonymous as ‘Croup’ there can be many causes, croup just being the most common. It can be a very serious acute situation, as inflammation can rapidly block the upper airway.   The main features of this are: Stridor – (inspiratory wheeze) – rasping sound  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 8 years ago