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E. Coli Mind Map

A mind map for E. coli emphasizing virulence factors and the diseases it causes.  
Ryan Matthews
over 7 years ago

Embryology of the Respiratory System

Excellent study notes on the Respiratory System!  
Michael Williams
over 5 years ago

Pneumonia: Causes, Types, & Symptoms

Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs that can be caused by a variety of different pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. Depending on the pathogen, symptoms can range in severity; this video covers the pathophysiology of a lung infection, as well as common types, clinical signs and symptoms, and treatments.
over 5 years ago

Foramen Ovale and Ductus Arteriosus Tutorial

Watch how the fetal heart allows blood to simply bypass the lungs altogether using the Foramen Ovale and the Ductus Arteriosus.  
over 7 years ago

Vagus nerve

An edited version of my Friday Evening Discouse given to the Royal Institution on 11 April 2008. Abstract: The vagus nerves (cranial nerve X) connects our brainstem to the body, facilitating monitoring and control of many automatic functions; the vagus electrically links our gut, lungs and heart to the base of the brain in an evolutionarily-ancient circuit, similar between mammals and also seen in birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The vagus comprises a major part of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system, contributing to the motor control of important physiological functions such as heart rate and gut motility. The vagus is also sensory, relaying protective visceral information leading to reflexes like cough and indication of lung volume. The vagus has been described as a neural component of the immune reflex. By monitoring changes in the level of control exerted by the vagus, apparent as beat by beat changes of heart rate, it is possible to indirectly view the effect of pharmaceuticals and disease on brainstem function and neural processes underlying consciousness. The paired vagus nerves of humans have different functions, and stimulation of the left vagus has been shown to be a therapeutic treatment for epilepsy, and may modulate the perception of pain.  
Chris Pomfrett
about 13 years ago
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Pleural effusion x-ray (left-sided)

This PA Chest X-Ray demonstrates a left sided pleural effusion. In this condition fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura and appears as a shadowy fluid level on the X-Ray with obliteration of the costophrenic angles. If you were to examine this patient they might be in respiratory distress from reduced oxygen uptake (so have low sats, high resp rate, possible cyanosis and accessory muscle useage) - they may have reduced chest expansion on the affected side and it would be stony dull to percussion. Fluid transmits sound poorly so breath sounds would be decreased as would vocal resonance/fremitus. Someone with consolidation may have very similar clinical findings but the underlying area of lung is almost solid due to pus from the infective process - as sounds travel well through solids they would have increased vocal fremitus which is how you can clinically differentiate between the two conditions. Clinical examination and understanding of conditions is paramount to practice effective medicine. Before you recieved this X-Ray you should be able to diagnose the condition and use the X-Ray to confirm your suspicions.  
Rhys Clement
about 12 years ago

Lung Physiology Video

The pulmonary system including the lungs, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and thoracic diaphragm.  
over 7 years ago
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Lung mechanics

Different graphs of the mechanics of Pulmonary Physio. Normal and Pathological.  
Andre Freire
almost 8 years ago

Physiology and Mechanics of Breathing

Great slideshow covering lung volumes, spirometry, obstructive Vs. restrictive disease, flow-volume loops, A-a gradient and CO diffusion capacity.
about 6 years ago
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CXR - left sided pneumothorax and surgical emphysema

In this Chest X-Ray we can identify a left sided pneumothorax - there is absence of lung markings in the periphery and we can also see a shadow which outlines the edge of the lung. A pneumothorax is caused when air enters the potential space between the viceral and parietal pleura and causes the lung to collapse down under the pressure of it's elsatic recoil. In this case it is likely that the pneumothorax has been caused by trauma as we can see air in the soft tissues on the left side (surgical emphysema - clinically feels like bubble wrap). A pneumothorax can be a life threatening condition. The patient presents in respiratory distress with decreased expansion on the affected side. There will be hyperresonance to percussion on that side but absent breath sounds. The emergency treatment is decompression with a large bore cannula in the 2nd intercostal space mid-clavicular line followed by insertion a chest drain in the 5th intercostal space mid-axilllary line  
Rhys Clement
about 12 years ago

Physiology of Lipoprotein Metabolism

Reducing the Atherogenic Burden Molecular Disease Branch National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland  
over 7 years ago

DVT and pulmonary embolisms

This 3D medical animation shows a blood clot forming in a lower leg vein, creating a deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. When the thrombus breaks free of the valve, it is called an embolus, and travels toward the heart and lungs. The animation ends by showing the embolus lodging in the lung tissue forming a life-threatening pulmonary embolism (PE).  
Liz Walker
over 11 years ago

Surface Anatomy of the Thorax

Learn to: Locate midclavicular line, sternal angle, trachea, clavicle, sternoclavicular joint, xiphoid process of sternum, and costal margin. Count the ribs and intercostal spaces. Describe the surfaces markings of the heart: borders, apex, location of the valves, auscultatory areas. Trace the surface markings of the lung and pleura. Trace the surface markings of the lung fissures and lobes. Locate the position of the costodiaphragmatic and costomediastinal recesses of the pleura.  
over 7 years ago

Pneumothorax: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity (ie, the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the lung). The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side.
almost 6 years ago

Lecture 3 Lungs & Pleura

by Dr. Noura El Tahawy, Faculty of Medicine, El Minia University  
almost 7 years ago

Lung Model by Andes Wong

Learn how to make a fake Lung by using the plastic bottle and balloons. A great project for children.  
over 7 years ago

Explaining The Inhaler Technique OSCE Station Guide

Patients with respiratory disease (breathing problems) such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require medication in the form of inhalers. Basically they need to inhale, hence the term inhalers, the medication via their mouth into their lungs.  
OSCE Skills
over 7 years ago