Fecal microbiota transplantation, as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in C. Difficile infection and previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors.
over 6 years ago
Now fully revised and updated with the latest guidelines, this new edition of the Oxford Handbook of Paediatrics is a compact guide to all aspects of acute and chronic paediatrics. The handbook's team of specialist contributors and editors have successfully condensed many years of clinical experience into a pocket-sized compendium of clinical problems and treatment options. Taking a child-centred approach to the subject, the authors have provided comprehensive coverage of areas such as neonatology, surgery, genetics and congenital malformations, and child protection in a user-friendly and succinct style. Sections are also devoted to covering the treatment of children in the community, and the psychological effects of illness on both the child and their family. All chapters have been updated for this new edition, with completely overhauled chapters on neurology and respiratory medicine, the latest management guidelines on inherited metabolic disease, further information on medical and research ethics, and enhanced usage of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. With practical advice and space for personalized notes, this handbook will be invaluable to all those involved in the care of the younger patient.
over 6 years ago
This narrated case report illustrates this newly discovered porphyria and also provides some background medical education to the porphyrias as a whole.
over 9 years ago
The reference given when answering the question about the increase in permeability of sodium ions during hypocalcemia is satisfactory but "does hypocalcemia not reduce the release of neurotransmitters at a chemical synapse" Will it not affect the speed and efficiency of conduction of impulse. Therefore how will it cause tetany?" Reference Increased Permeability of the Sodium Channels When There Is a Deficit of Calcium Ions. The concentration of calcium ions in the extracellular fluid also has a profound effect on the voltage level at which the sodium channels become activated. When there is a deficit of calcium ions, the sodium channels become activated (opened) by very little increase of the membrane potential from its normal, very negative level. Therefore, the nerve fiber becomes highly excitable, sometimes discharging repetitively without provocation rather than remaining in the resting state. In fact, the calcium ion concentration needs to fall only 50 per cent below normal before spontaneous discharge occurs in some peripheral nerves, often causing muscle “tetany.”This is sometimes lethal because of tetanic contraction of the respiratory muscles. The probable way in which calcium ions affect the sodium channels is as follows:These ions appear to bind to the exterior surfaces of the sodium channel protein molecule. The positive charges of these calcium ions in turn alter the electrical state of the channel protein itself, in this way altering the voltage level required to open the sodium gate. From: Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology / Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall.—11th ed.
over 8 years ago
I was discussing with a renal consultant the reasons for avoiding thiazides in patients with sarcoidosis with renal involvement. I think it is well established that they can cause hypercalcaemia but after (not very much) searching on the internet and in textbooks I can't seem to find out why? Does anybody know?
almost 8 years ago