New to Meducation?
Sign up
Already signed up? Log In
view moderators

PharmaceuticalPreparations

Category

Maxresdefault
2
183

Pharmacokinetics 4 - Metabolism

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This tutorial is the fourth in the Pharmacokinetics series. This tutorial discusses how drugs are metabolised by Cytoch...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
Preview
2
105

CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS; ANTI ANGINAL DRUGS by Professor Fink

Check-out professor fink's web-site or additional resources in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology & Pharmacology: www.professorfink.com Down-loadable e-books of th...  
YouTube
over 7 years ago
Preview
2
25

Small Data: The huge cost of developing drugs - BBC News

How the cost of developing new drugs is encouraging big drugs companies to merge with each other.  
BBC News
over 7 years ago
Preview
2
38

Preterm birth and the role of neuroprotection

Preterm birth remains a common complication of pregnancy and causes substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. As improvements in the care of preterm neonates have outpaced efforts to prevent preterm birth, the numbers of survivors with neurologic sequelae that affect quality of life have increased. The main strategies to reduce the impact of neurologic complications of prematurity include prevention of preterm birth and protection of the developing fetal brain through antenatal administration of drugs. These strategies rely on a basic understanding of the intertwined pathophysiology of spontaneous preterm labor and perinatal brain injury, which will be reviewed here. The review will outline current methods for the prevention of prematurity and neuroprotection. The use of magnesium sulfate as a neuroprotective compound will be discussed, including concerns over its association with increased pediatric mortality and abnormalities in bone density.  
bmj.com
about 7 years ago
Preview
2
87

PHARMACOKINETICS; Absorption & Distribution of Drugs by Professor Fink

In this Video Lecture on Pharmacokinetics, Professor Fink describes the Absorption & Distribution of Drugs. The major factors affecting the systemic absorpti...  
YouTube
about 7 years ago
Www.bmj
2
35

Diagnosis and management of asthma in children

In problematic cases of childhood asthma, rather than escalating treatment, a systematic approach is needed, including a review of the diagnosis; adherence, including ability to take drugs correctly; and the child’s environment  
bmj.com
almost 7 years ago
Www.bmj
2
73

Guidelines, polypharmacy, and drug-drug interactions in patients with multimorbidity

Polypharmacy, defined as the chronic co-prescription of several drugs, is often the consequence of the application of disease specific guidelines, targeting disease specific goals, to patients with multiple chronic diseases. One common consequence of polypharmacy is the high rate of adverse drug reactions, mainly from drug-drug interactions (the ability of a drug to modify the action or effect of another drug administered successively or simultaneously).1 The risk of a drug-drug interaction in any particular patient increases with the number of co-existing diseases and the number of drugs prescribed.2  
bmj.com
almost 7 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 1f9109k?1444774063
2
2679

Criticizing the NHS - Can students do this productively?

In this month’s SBMJ (May 2013) a GP called Dr Michael Ingram has written a very good article highlighting some of the problems with the modern NHS’s administrative systems, especially relating to the huge amount of GP time wasted on following up after administrative errors and failings. I personally think that it is important for people working within the NHS to write articles like this because without them then many of us would be unaware of these problems or would feel less confident in voicing our own similar thoughts. The NHS is a fantastic idea and does provide an excellent service compared to many other health care systems around the world, but there is always room for improvement – especially on the administrative side! The issues raised by Dr Ingram were: Histology specimens being analysed but reports not being sent to the GP on time or with the correct information. Histology reports not being discussed with patient’s directly when they try and contact the hospital to find out the results and instead being referred to their GP, who experiences the problem stated above. GP’s are being left to deal with patient’s problems that have nothing to do with the GP and their job and have everything to do with an inefficient NHS bureaucracy. These problems and complaints often taking up to a third of a GP’s working day and thereby reducing the time they can spend actually treating patients. Having to arrange new outpatient appointments for patients when their appointment letters went missing or when appointments were never made etc. Even getting outpatient appointments in the first place and how these are often delayed well after the recommended 6 week wait. Patients who attend outpatient appointments often have to consult their GP to get a prescription that the hospital consultant has recommended, so that the GP bares the cost and not the hospital. My only issue with this article is that Dr Ingram highlights a number of problems with the NHS systems but then does not offer a single solution/idea on how these systems could be improved. When medical students are taught to write articles for publication it is drummed into us that we should always finish the discussion section with a conclusion and recommendations for further work/ implications for practice. I was just thinking that if doctors, medical students, nurses and NHS staff want to complain about the NHS’s failings then at least suggest some ways of improving these problems at the same time. This then turns what is essentially a complaint/rant into helpful, potentially productive criticism. If you (the staff) have noticed that these problems exist then you have also probably given some thought to why the problem exists, so why not just say/write how you think the issue could be resolved? If your grievances and solutions are documented and available then someone in the NHS administration might take your idea up and actually put it into practice, potentially reducing the problem (a disgustingly idealist thought I know). A number of times I have been told during medical school lectures and at key note speeches at conferences that medical students are a valuable resource to the NHS administration because we visit different hospitals, we wander around the whole hospital, we get exposed to the good and bad practice and we do not have any particular loyalty to any one department and can therefore objective observations. So, I was thinking it might be interesting to ask as many medical students as possible for their thoughts on how to improve the systems within the NHS. So I implore any of you reading this blog: write your own blog about short comings that you have noticed, make a recommendation for how to improve it and then maybe leave a link in the comments below this blog. If we start taking more of an interest in the NHS around us and start documenting where improvements could be made then maybe we could together work to create a more efficient and effective NHS. So I briefly just sat down and had a think earlier today about a few potential solutions for the problems highlighted in Dr Ingram’s article. A community pathology team that handles all of the GP’s pathology specimens and referrals. A “patient pathway co-ordinator” could be employed as additional administrative staff by GP surgeries to chase up all of the appointments and missing information that is currently using up a lot of the GP’s time and thereby freeing them to see more patients. I am sure this role is already carried out by admin staff in GP practices but perhaps in an ad hoc way, rather than that being their entire job. Do the majority of GP practices get access to the hospitals computer systems? Surely, if GPs had access to the hospital systems this would mean a greater efficiency for booking outpatient appointments and for allowing GPs to follow up test results etc. In the few outpatient departments I have come across outpatient appointments are often made by the administration team and then sent by letter to the patients, with the patient not being given a choice of when is good for them. Would it not be more efficient for the administrative staff to send the patients a number of appointment options for the patient to select one appropriate for them? Eliyahu M. Goldratt was a business consultant who revolutionized manufacturing efficiency a few years ago. He wrote a number of books on his theories that are very interesting and easy to read because he tries to explain most of his points using a narrative – “The Goal” and “Critical Chain” being just tow. His business theories focussed on finding the bottle neck in an industrial process, because if that is the rate limiting step in the manufacturing process then it is the most essential part for improving efficiency of the whole process. Currently, most GPs refer patients to outpatient appointments at hospitals and this can often take weeks or months. The outpatient appointments are a bottle neck in the process of getting patients the care they require. Therefore, focussing attention on how outpatient appointments are co-ordinated and run would improve the efficiency in the “patient pathway” as a whole. a. Run more outpatient clinics. b. Pay consultants overtime to do more clinics, potentially in the evenings or at weekends. While a lot may not want to do this, a few may volunteer and help to reduce the back log on the waiting lists. c. Have more patients seen by nurse specialists so that more time is freed up for the consultants to see the more urgent or serious patients. d. An obvious, yet expensive solution, hire more consultants to help with the ever increasing workload. e. Change the outpatient system so that it becomes more of an assembly line system with one doctor and a team of nurses handling the “new patient” appointments and another team handling the “old patient” follow up appointments rather than having them all mixed together at the same time. I am sure that there are many criticisms of the points I have written above and I would be interested to hear them. I would also love to hear any other solutions for the problems mentioned above. Final thought for today … Why shouldn’t medical students make criticisms of inefficiencies and point them out to the relevant administrator? If anyone else is interested in how the NHS as a whole is run then there is a new organisation called the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management that is keen to recruit interested student members (www.fmlm.ac.uk).  
jacob matthews
over 8 years ago
Preview
2
63

Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training

Here's the information students need to know about how drugs work and how they can affect athletic performance. Through "real life" scenarios, students gain insights into the application of pharmacology in their clinical practice—from assisting an athlete who is taking a new medication to recognizing drug-related side effects when a negative reaction is occurring to handling instances of drug abuse. Beginning with an overview of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the text presents prescription and over-the-counter medications in relation to the injuries or health conditions athletic trainers commonly encounter. Frequently abused substances such as amphetamines, herbals, and anabolic steroids are also addressed. Legal and ethical issues of drug use are presented, such as HIPAA–mandated privacy issues, drug testing, and which drugs are deemed as acceptable or banned according to NCAA and US Olympic standard.  
books.google.co.uk
almost 7 years ago
Preview
2
47

Ethical issues and addiction. - PubMed - NCBI

The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women.  
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
over 6 years ago
Preview
2
48

Neurotransmitter Receptors Alter Postsynaptic Membrane Permeability - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf

In 1907, the British physiologist John N. Langley introduced the concept of receptor molecules to explain the specific and potent actions of certain chemicals on muscle and nerve cells. Much subsequent work has shown that receptor molecules do indeed account for the ability of neurotransmitters, hormones, and drugs to alter the functional properties of neurons. While it has been clear since Langley's day that receptors are important for synaptic transmission, their identity and detailed mechanism of action remained a mystery until quite recently. It is now known that neurotransmitter receptors are proteins embedded in the plasma membrane of postsynaptic cells. Domains of receptor molecules that extend into the synaptic cleft bind neurotransmitters that are released into this space by the presynaptic neuron. The binding of neurotransmitters, either directly or indirectly, causes ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane to open or close (Figure 7.1). Typically, the resulting ion fluxes change the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell, thus mediating the transfer of information across the synapse. Figure 7.1Receptors that mediate the postsynaptic actions of neurotransmitters have two functions. First, specific binding sites on the extracellular side of receptors allow these proteins to detect the presence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. Second, transmitter-bound receptors alter the ionic permeability of the postsynaptic membrane by virtue of being coupled, directly or indirectly, to ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. Opening or closing these channels as a result of transmitter binding allows ionic currents to flow, thus changing the postsynaptic membrane potential.  
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
over 6 years ago
Preview
2
32

Hepatitis B and C testing: people at risk of infection | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

The guidance is for commissioners and providers of public health services, hepatitis testing and treatment services and laboratory services for hepatitis B and C testing. It is also for local organisations providing services for children and adults at increased risk of hepatitis B and C infection, including those in the NHS, local authorities, prisons, immigration removal centres and drugs services, and for voluntary sector and community organisations working with people at increased risk.  
nice.org.uk
about 6 years ago
2
1
140

Pharmacology of Shock

This is a basic introduction of some of the drugs used in various forms of shock.    
Jeffrey S. Guy, MD, FACS
over 11 years ago
9
1
79

Second Line Treatment of Adv NSCLC: What Drugs and When? (audio)

This slide presentation by Dr. Julie Brahmer, medical oncologist and lung cancer expert at Johns Hopkins University, reviews the factors to be considered in the selection of agents and timing of treatments given after first line therapy for advanced NSCLC.  
Howard (Jack) West, MD
over 11 years ago
10
1
86

Second Line Treatment of Adv NSCLC: What Drugs and When? (video)

This slide presentation by Dr. Julie Brahmer, medical oncologist and lung cancer expert at Johns Hopkins University, reviews the factors to be considered in the selection of agents and timing of treatments given after first line therapy for advanced NSCLC.  
Howard (Jack) West, MD
over 11 years ago
2
1
97

Differentiating, Dosing, and Combining Mood Stabilizing Drugs - Rationally Combining Mood Stabilizers for Optimum Outcomes

In this podcast, Drs. Andrew Cutler and Stephen M. Stahl debate how to achieve the optimum outcome in mood disorders. They describe rational combinations of mood stabilizing drugs and highlight some dangerous combinations, including when and why to avoid them.  
Neuroscience Education Institute
over 11 years ago
3
1
102

Differentiating, Dosing, and Combining Mood Stabilizing Drugs - Dosing Atypical Antipsychotics as Mood Stabilizers

In this podcast, Drs. Andrew Cutler and Stephen M. Stahl describe the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics as mood stabilizers and discuss dosing practices for these agents from a disease-state-dependent perspective.  
Neuroscience Education Institute
over 11 years ago