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PregnantWomen

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11

Effects of restricted caffeine intake by mother on fetal, neonatal and pregnancy outcomes | Cochrane

Caffeine is a stimulant found in tea, coffee, cola, chocolate and some over-the-counter medicines. Conflicting results found in the literature make it difficult for health professionals to advise pregnant women about avoiding caffeine during pregnancy. Clearance of caffeine from the mother's blood slows down during pregnancy. Some authors of observational studies have concluded that caffeine intake is harmful to the fetus, causing growth restriction, reduced birthweight, preterm birth or stillbirth. The newborn could also have withdrawal symptoms if the mother has a high intake of caffeine (more than eight cups of coffee per day).  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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14

Haemophilus influenzae type B and viral influenza vaccinations during pregnancy for improving maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes | Cochrane

Maternal immunisation with Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and viral influenza vaccines may reduce the risk of infections in mothers and infants, however, this is an area of controversy. Both infections can cause severe pneumonia and deaths among children under five years of age, particularly in developing countries. Rates of influenza-associated complications and consequent hospitalisations are substantially higher among pregnant women, infants and newborns. Pregnant women who are vaccinated against influenza have protective levels of anti-influenza antibodies, which can be passively transferred to the infant to improve their health outcomes. Infants of immune mothers usually have influenza symptoms that are delayed in onset and of shorter duration. This review investigated whether vaccinating pregnant women with Hib and viral influenza vaccinations during pregnancy could reduce the risk of infection among mothers and babies and improve health outcomes for both.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening, the ability of the cervix to open in response to spontaneous uterine contractions | Cochrane

In this review, researchers from The Cochrane Collaboration examined a comparison between the Bishop score and any other method for checking pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. The Bishop score is the traditional method of determining the readiness of the cervix to open (dilate) before labour induction. It also assesses the position, softening and shortening of the cervix, and the location of the presenting part of the baby. After searching for relevant trials up to 31 March 2015, we included two randomised controlled trials that recruited 234 pregnant women.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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11

Smoking rates among pregnant women fall to all time low of 11%

Last year the number of women in England who were recorded as smokers at the time of giving birth fell to an all time low of 11.4%, down from 12% in 2012-13 and from 15% in 2006-07.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 6 years ago
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12

Powders of iron plus other micronutrients for home (point-of-use) fortification of foods consumed by pregnant women | Cochrane

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to nutrient deficiencies due to the requirements of the growing baby during the pregnancy. In low-income countries, many women have diets with low content of vitamins and minerals, and they participate in long hours of physical labour. They are also exposed to recurrent infections, which make nutritional deficiencies worse. Thus, lack of adequate nutrition can contribute to the poor health of these women their babies.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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13

Antibiotic prophylaxis during the second and third trimester in pregnancy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes and morbidity | Cochrane

Antibiotics are administered to pregnant women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (before labour) to prevent bacteria in the vagina and cervix affecting the pregnancy. Infection by some infectious organisms in a woman’s genital tract can cause health problems for the mother and her baby, and has been associated with preterm births. This review of eight randomised trials involved approximately 4300 women in their second or third trimester. We found that antibiotics did not reduce the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (one trial, low quality of evidence), or the risk of preterm birth (six trials, high quality of evidence). Preterm delivery was reduced in pregnant women who had a previous preterm birth and an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) during the current pregnancy. There was no reduction in preterm delivery in pregnant women with previous preterm birth without a bacterial imbalance during the current pregnancy (two trials). Postpartum endometritis, or infection of the uterus following birth, was reduced overall (three trials, moderate quality of evidence), as well as in a trial of high-risk women who had a previous preterm birth (one trial, moderate quality of evidence). No reduction in neonatal illness was observed. Outcomes of interest were available in trials with high losses to follow-up. We could not estimate the side effects of antibiotics since side effects were rare; however, antibiotics may still have serious side effects on women and their babies.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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19

Ultrasound For the Win! Case: 38-year-old pregnant woman with acute right-sided abdominal pain #US4TW

Ultrasound For the Win! Case: 38-year-old pregnant woman with acute right-sided abdominal pain #US4TW by Dr. Jeff Shih  
aliem.com
over 6 years ago
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Alternative packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnant women | Cochrane

A routine number of visits for pregnant women has developed as part of antenatal or prenatal care without evidence of how much care is necessary to optimise the health of mothers and babies, and what is helpful for the women. These visits can include tests, education and other health checks. The review set out to compare studies where women receiving standard care were compared with women attending on a reduced number of occasions. We included seven randomised controlled trials involving more than 60,000 women. We assessed studies for risk of bias and graded the quality of the evidence. The trials were carried out in both high-income (four trials) and low- and middle-income countries (three trials). In high-income countries the number of visits was reduced to around eight. In lower-income countries many women in the reduced visits group attended for care on fewer than five occasions, although the content of visits was altered so as to focus on specific goals. In this review there was no strong evidence of differences between groups receiving a reduced number of antenatal visits compared with standard care on the number of preterm births or low birthweight babies (moderate-quality evidence). However, there was some evidence from these trials that in low- and middle-income countries perinatal mortality may be increased with reduced visits (low-quality evidence) although there may have been fewer admissions to neonatal intensive care but the evidence for this latter outcome was not strong. There was no clear difference between groups for our other primary outcomes including maternal death and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including pre-eclampsia). There was evidence that women in all settings were less satisfied with the reduced schedule of visits; for some women the gap between visits was perceived as too long. Reduced visits may be associated with lower costs.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron + folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy | Cochrane

During pregnancy, women need iron and folate to meet both their own needs and those of the developing baby. The concern is that if pregnant women become deficient in these nutrients they are unable to supply them in sufficient quantities to their baby. Low folate nutrition before conceiving increases the risk of the baby having neural tube defects. Low iron and folate levels in women can cause anaemia, which can make women tired, faint, and at increased risk of infection.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
Www.bmj
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Pregnant women support extra screening test for Down’s syndrome

A test that is 99% accurate in predicting the risk of Down’s syndrome and reduces the number of women who need invasive testing has the backing of pregnant women, early research has found.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 6 years ago
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3

Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections during pregnancy | Cochrane

Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women generally, and particularly in pregnant women. A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary tract (bladder, kidneys) due to the presence of bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria). During pregnancy, UTI may be a serious complication that is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Therefore, it is important to define the optimal intervention for preventing RUTI during pregnancy to improve pregnancy outcomes. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in pregnant women can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far, little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago
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Effect of high feedback versus low feedback of prenatal ultrasound on maternal anxiety and health behaviour in pregnancy | Cochrane

Ultrasound is a routine part of prenatal care offered to pregnant women in most countries with developed health services. It is used during prenatal care to help achieve a healthy mother and child. Pregnant women want reassurance and to check that all is normal by verifying fetal life and growth and to exclude fetal abnormalities. The parents are given immediate access to the images of the fetus, which may promote maternal attachment and positive attitudes toward health during the pregnancy. The obstetricians can identify high-risk conditions including multiple pregnancy, abnormalities of amniotic fluid volume and the placenta, fetal anomalies and growth restriction. During high-feedback ultrasound scans, women can see the screen and they receive detailed explanations of the images. In low-feedback ultrasound scans, only the operator can see the screen and the women are told the results at the end of the scan. High feedback might reduce pregnancy anxiety but it can impact both ways, not only adding excessive stress on the pregnant women and their partners but also on the physicians, especially when there is the possibility of an abnormal finding. We carried out this systematic review to compare high feedback versus low feedback during prenatal ultrasound for reducing maternal anxiety and improving maternal health behaviour and other pregnancy outcomes.  
cochrane.org
over 6 years ago